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.:t .,'\-\ssIJ11lJ. PrNlisloire et pmfoh.istoire :!'F.gypte. - d~ i!;, TravatlX Ul1i\',rsitc (i(s (\~ l'l!;t:llll Il'EtIIllO:ogic,), Pllr.is. \'0':. LIII. I"H9 ('I:1'(' - PrL'llist.). . 356, 9 l'.10'l "aTe;lIfa.'I, l:lll,,'-ll"DIOIl :latll1III ,1 f. :l-I.'Im:' 11 IIIIJtl 1I , il.'-D.1 11 ..".llf, I,'I \/ .~ :1.0 11. '}. II~PI!O ;trnf,llli'i II ~J'lI IJ,10 1111'111.'13 1I': 1l1l;lCTna Ha:lblB1IeM ::1110.\011 .t'''.l.'L;ll, 10 U.'IiJ" II;II lO 11 il lJ. Ir'l ' Jl!l ,~lO j't'IllJ'O I'" IIO, ll.IJ liO'foroil n 1!' (' ''.;1[jI .

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(.111""1' - Rt'is, . !VJ/bia). P'j1, ;)[ !.!---)2;); Pr6i:ist., 1':). 360, 352, 1908 \'01. 1, Cairo, 1F.iI!) 3t; , Siiye-S!.l)t'r:!ll,.4r;ypten ml 'ul!, Ll, 1941, S. 5 .

12 \V.\1, ol. Jelrie, [)i(),~p')lis . Tf;e celllet/!ries.?! Abadiye/z and , London, 1901 (.1... Lius:.J.), . 5-12; . J,t',ke., i !lt'ikl/g der iJ.Jgescc!rtlicflell /(ultur in giIJ, --.. Ffslscllrift fijr , Vv'. S!llidl, [928, S. 875. .

;;. . SCI1lrif, Grumlziige /ler ur;YfJtisl'llen l'orges-cl!icil1/!, Leipzig, 1927 (.l.sllff. Gl/l/dziige): S. 38 .

:4 Diosp., . 1--8. ~a ill.,JeT [lxoa II l\\uprall (" .

J. :\'\g11. Recherch/!s sur les (Jrigines tie tEgypte, vo/, J. L'Age de pierre ef le:; metuux, Paris. 'IIJ96) OI lII .'1.!' RlI, ,l ~.:ro'j IJU, lJ'iJlI :\\ 38.'1 u I11','1 : :\J),\ 11 .

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llJ II51 (, .. ) 18 .

Jlll 14 .l' ' ' n :\I .1 , 03:\-IO!i JI 19 .

. 1927 1'. , lIlI BOBI-IIlI CY~I:\-ly 955 ~IeT :I 1 I , .

1,IJ .1 3200 . . . 2(0, n 1950 . ~ 2850 . . . 21. :\ , :\ .'lI , 22. 1\l .l ..'t.,1O---,fi lI;'1iIlIIl" -,. . IH, 'lO~l l'UrO, :(.!r.'l: :!!.''.r l:'l'' l!y.'Ibyp '11 61- i,(j, II ,l(: I'~IJ);!I, I''' 11 KY,lhypa :111 (PIel1ist., . 67). J:)aYMrepTe.1b I1.1 ,1 1 .%u ll 11 , l1l' KYJ!bT)'J1'Y ?)/ 11 'BTOI/OJ'O r:'I;J.. 1\, 110,.~ 50- I(~;

.1 .'t Ol'll c.xe~lbl II lI .1 .1, , , I ll.'l .10ll ! (\\/. I(aisc'r. Stund und m der agypiischell Vorgeschichts .

forschung, - AZ. &1. !"Ji, S. '107; -. Char1cs, Essai sur l hnolgi des ivsaJins predynastiques d'Egypte, - J~r.S, \0'01. XVI, 1957, ;-,~ 4, . 2'10-253) .

18 W. F. Libby, Radiocarbon datillg, - I::.l.\'u, LOl1don, \'01. XllI, 1954, N~ 49, IP. 5-'16 .

19 u J1 ,l ::I .'l , :\ 14. 11 I-II!:"I lIil ' ,.1Il, I r. )' .1l'з1I coomeTcl1Byer .111ȷ Ky.1UType 11 1If (. Geistes.1Hl1tung, S. 55-57) .

Scharff, Grutldzuge, S. 51 .

21 . ud .i\o1oortgat, AltertlL, Sc11arff Agypten und Vorderasien Milnich, 1950 .

S. 191 .

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JIOlIij :,I:1.l, lJIlllii r.Jlll'Jl'. OOll1\O :Jl{ ;l!1 110t),'1' \1;, )"PCI\;iC ! : ii I OCTa~TC l' f-1J I!. )I(l' CIIOCI'O .illil .l~~l ilJ'l .1;)JiO IJU!:JIIII rocy.1.i1PCTi:H I' 11 SIII .:l,l' K~I':\IH 1, \1(:Ta~.'!,H\"' .

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[J;- I! t' I)())IJ(:\,;' I aP\("O."O:-i;I\)(,'1'''t 110 , ll u KOHKpeTHO:\I HeOJ.'1bIIIO:\I )-! r.((: :'.,C3;:1;:; ll,'I;l() lO.li.1l ;l,:r. 1:$ t';., .I :\I,{ .'1..r '1 l LllJ).'1.a.'lee Uf1, l1ȭ t'J'. '1'( () 1l8 F:!l , \1 e;I,:r '[J;I ,m j\r8.'].I! 25 .

2- , L: :!l ur .I,1 l'.:rI_' .l II, ;IlIl1 .1 ".1 ,:'1 Il F'l. P('tril!, /Irt.~ t crafts ,-1ncil!nl Egypt. [dinhtlrg" -L,lIld, 1909: TQ:lls alld ",'eapOJfts, LIII, 1917, 2.' \V.,\\. Petrie, Prell:staric Efypt. i.ondon, '1920 (.'1,'l(' -- ), . 25, 2.; . . ll, J!tl un, . 1, !'v\., 1915, [1. 30 .

. .'l -'f n .; R , n , .'I n , - . . (,, MaT"lape) TO.lbKO , Jl , . 1937 . .'l1 Ar:\IaHTC, , (1920 .) n .1 IJ.'l. Ը, , . .'Il .1 }[ (. ). ..l t ~.'la "l .

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8, , .rr :\1 JI ,'Iav'l .1 , n . , ~"IO, :~n.[]J Ky.'IbY.Pbl . .

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JJ II, JU :J:LIl, .l IIIO : Jr , 11, !\.-:\II, li, :\lJI .

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. . " . .'I N\.iI ; .

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II J1 Il.'1: I1.'I.1 l\I :1 t' JI, , II , l\I.'Ia Jl0s 31. .l0 l~ )m J: . .'Il f.'lanbI l r:., , ii KY.'IbTypaM KY.'IlT:-,', .

1\1accy.'1apa ll TOf, : ~I ' ', 40- , .'1'll:\!,, .

1I OTMCilb, '! }( ~ f ~ ( lI ) fle i3(' ll , .'1 I'. . ;I ll('lO, :(Jl .'1 .'1 K,HIHH .

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1~ ~i. II, ,":t.:~ ,l n .r .:J I!'l'::I\fII, ;. .'I.:l 44 I .'l CI\tle lI;';;.l.I,1I , il}I('lIIO .:I.\r .'1 ( .l rJllrIJ, }lO ! IIJIO.lJ , 'ii , .'1 , 6.10 1I\1 Illl . ~.:;J1 .'l. .'! .

, ~.' .'!31 ' :II, () , 60:1 :J:l ,:: .'I J , Ei'IIlIH' 4". 1949 . )1,IJ iilI.1'J:J! .1 G - : \lll rTpe,;:t JI 1II.,Jh r II lI , ll ..1JI 'I 4(; .

Kpc.:v'c , Ii n 30- ll;:!.:, 13 :\Il' IIC().lJHTJ{'1i..'CKHC l'. f .'1 :\I 11 \' ()III4I:\'1 I1r" JI lJOl, f1 n':'! II:lJI IJ:! IJ 4l'0 .ll, KflK ca}lblC JI!:' ,:j - l - .'1, \le,to .

, , '1 !: 1:3 ll :l ~ :l4, II , ll.'l: utU':r\ f:.'1 ..=; n llcpXIIC~" 41 ll ;lO, -n :\IO .l ,.'1 , 3. !' , :\I.. .11\JO ;I, .'1lJ ,.1 BTGpOfO JJa}i . :\!.1 , .1'1O R .l, .l0 ' ;:) l1Il, G.'lll . J1 l1 l' ,'1 11 .1 .l, :\'l , :I, .l0 ,.r .

JI ll II n .'1ܭ , ! , 24 :\f, .1 .ro I'I Ii 3II .i10() :! ll 48. tiOIlS, \'01. ;;.\'11, (1933), J1. 46; . S. Sandford, l . an.d the Nile Valley [n .

, l1nd A1ill.11e gt, - Ille tJlli\'ersity oi Cca~o Oricntal Istitut ublictis~ .

v()l, X\!IIl, [1934], . 105, 107 .

prllist., , 30 .

44 1-'. !10ll0, Le PaIColithique fillal et Mesolitlliqu(! llelouan. -ASAE, vol. 48,.1 asc.2. 1'948, '. 5219-637 .

45 pciJist., J1. 40 .

4 Dt'~()tlO, ditin. PJ1, 64-66, 47 CPF., . 3 .

4" Pr(,l!ist., J1p. 31, 49 .

, .l .'I .! :\'1 ll :-. ,m JIҭ !J .1 .1 .'IOII .1 . ,fl v i1 \I.'Ia :\( IlI1 I .'I, ,10 -38..1 'JI.'. ''~Jl, r::t.e .\l( , !\ ,;"J ,rl , 03~:fOI10, 2 .

JJ:IJ :\f.'I, .;I . .1II r. Hbll\'1 ;\I. , nTOp0!\I , :dh :\(II 11 ll l', , 1 JI, , iLjIIJ10, ,:, . . 11 II, II :\'1 .'I .l CiI'i .! .

ll :'l.'Ib 06 n Bepxllero e.r,, 11 r. i\\:-. Jl.'1, ;;II.;JI3 '~ $ I10;l HOMopbe:'f, I'.'I-' :Jii, .1 I IlpaB!.J.'IbHOCTb ,;:. , IlJ-I 49 .

lI fi}l. ,:I )lO Jf; :\I :,,( ).0.10 (28-23 )1), .- KY.'lbYPbl (10 _) (4 ) II (2 Jt) 50 .

I ),III'I lI ll, 110 Il, , .l0 .

..1"l , m lli J!_ .l '.."l .'l.!J n II .'Jlt I{ ,u . 51. VIII V 11 .

, III II.~" (.~, 4g .), ,10 .1 IIII.1a ('15-20 .) .q l lfl (1(, W. BHtzer, Enuironment and htlman ec%g!l in Egypt during the predyn. and early dynastic tirnes, - rullti dc la Socit'tc dc Gcograpi1ic d'Egyptc, Cairo, 1. 32, 1959,,. 43-87). 011 lI Il.q 11 , !.I ~I V ~I . ., 11.'18 n (1(. \v. I3utzer, Arcl/aeology and geology in Ancient Egypt, - Sciencc, 132, (1960). Ng 3440, . 1623) .

. 516 .

50 Prchist., 51 v.,\\asson. Tlle n farrners 01 Cenfral ASlia, - cVI Intp.rnational gss of prehistork and protoohisIoric scienccs, Report and communications archaeologists \he LJSSR. Moscow, 1962, . 3-7 .

lI . : R\t, · KOTOPO~",, 3:l.f.lI , :, ,.:J .'1 . l .:m tr !I .1J Q. :\I IJ. F,1'I .'1 ;l, aJ :\I: ( oI!x .J.IO .:I I, l! I\), :l' \IIIr , ' .

: l\'1D l II8 :1 '{ l ?

..'II, ~I1 :l1'II i lliIO .1:0U:\f .

~ iII; ('!lIn; :1 21 V '!,1.0,!-:I. . ( ) lI:./ II ~ I13 .l;l.Jlܭ ~:, j\kl, . 13 lI,llI I::: :ltaTe.IJ51 KYJlbypa !)!f'J:J, ~I511'): )I".l :lf.'I.'1IIN!, I30;l., , Jll:l\I .'1ҭ n (. G). :l~;l :\I , .'l .l .l :\'I , I:::.'I 'I!i , I3!!JIO ,l ,.l!l I TO:I[,I(O IOĸ:l 'Ie,:JOBeKa , , c:!:\la 1)a~!:I!repTe.Jb 5~ :-. ! . . R Ca~10i\I I::: .'1 ' , .1)' l\JCCTaX .

, !I .l .'10:lf .'1. .'10' .1 J.;:"' ,.II:.1 J~ Hl' :IIl ;;3, I ,II .I'l : Ha'la.:le m .ll1f, 7!,:'I :lilIO ~, JlJI[,54. '.- , II[,. \ Ky.!Jbypa J1 .l .'1 . . -, ' , έ I!'v'. .'I , .!J ~1~0 Il l" J1 .'l l , ,

62 , , 78, 100; Notes, , 279, 63 Geisiesha\tung, S. 65-66, &4 , . '19; Notes, . 287 .

\()..'I .1 55. , ~t.1 , li Iy.1Jbypa :\-lO.1 .'IU! , \, ;lII I1..~l 56 .

aiiTJpOB i\l !I.'1 . '\r , LlO I!CO.YI!IOM 57. { n (;' ::tl' !!.'l l., ':' l, i. Ky.1Jb~'r Il J.lii ll IlepTbl, OJ;HaKO, T:BOPHIb., l : I1;.II :"I I/::ICe.'leHJIeM j\'\t (' 58. .l .: .'Ii1 () :! .'1. ) I:\I JJ().10 TO\I. 'l Ky.:IbYP ~II:,r ll.1J !! JlllI\ , ;1. G.1J CXOJ;i1:\! ,[(I\I :.1111. ~)3r"'Ii!, , I! ~rIl l'.1JIlIl I !!;! F: r~'. ii,J. !.'I, .'I ( ii) () r.I li , .1 IIl1 hll .'I. .-;::: m: I12o.1lla tl !I('u,'l ()i1J, 60 .

i!\ l.'l, .1 N\l\l I\! K)'.lbYP ~ 11 Il I, Il Ky.'lb)'pe IJ. T;]!{O~( :il ::r:.1 v lI IJl.-r rJ!. :1.0, ly.1Jbyphl lO:l 11 \;l. .JIl4.('l, .1 ' D.'I .'1 .

OCTa.'IbHOfO, S5 . . l''~}' COCTO!lI/e u.'!.u u.uz n. .~l\l IIlI I\lllI'l! , 1934, N~ 7-S, . 139; lI ,.1\\. 1951, . 1 :J .'I jJlIII:' . . .~.1~;JO.I' (.'{, - .-u, ,'1 ), . 53 .

56 CP~, . 24; Nutcs, . 287. .

51 .

. II, u.'t1- .u.... . 139; , . 89-90; . Junker, Bericltt die Grabung der t1kademie der Wiss/ltn ; Irtien ; der neJlitblschen.5iedlung rn Mer;mde-Bellisalame (Westdella) 1. bis 30. Afiirz 1929. - ztig- dcr Aka di Iler Wisssllftl' ill \Vitϻ, pllilosopili5cll-llis!orisclll' lasse, fi, Jg. 1929, \Vien und Leipzig, 1930, Nr. X\'I-\!lIl (i1a,1ee - . 1), S. 1S0; . Jl1k, Bericht die van Akademie der Wissellscllaften in Wien ;n VerbindunI! m dem Egyptiska Museet il~ Stockholm untem:Jmmenen Grabungen auf neCJlithischen Siedlung van Merimde8enisa lame vom 2. Jiinner bls 20. }D33. - Anzeiger dcr Akademie der Wisscnschaften philosopblsch-iIistish lss. 70. Jg. 1933, Wien und Leipzig, Nr. XVIjn Wien, XX\lI (:r.a.1Jee - Mer. Iv). S. 96 .

88 .'Il , n. /.'I ..'IIp. (Geisteshaltung, S. 61-) .

s .

59 GistshItug, 64 .

00 , ,. 90 .

II 1!0n Ky.'lbypbl lO ' Ji . :l.lJ 61. , .J.J:.1 , : I ѭ o.JIa :I n il3.1!i KpeJICDblX .,. .'l , :~ .'1 , - ~ 02!3 .l .'q "l.l, .'iIO. , ](-l\ 1'2, .l0 , , f IlJI.'I I[ lII ~I , -. I1a II-l'lII R .lJ L~. KpO:\1(~ , .'1 )'ICTO .'1 I. l\t, \ ɷ MOf"la ' I1.'I, , ,J .

. KYJlbYPY t;\I .

'r J:)l\I 1:\l I :\ BTl)l1OfO ;l. , :\l I~. n .l ~l .;l.I1 :\I i - ;-.-\.'1i:lI)II 63 .

.'l lI .'l CTO.'lb iI " " :\l.i1I .J J.I , ' ~ ~ " .'l ~ .;. i .'I:-'-I:\, .'l :\1 :\. :\ .'l!1.:l \l .IJȻ :'lI ll~\t UYJlaBbl, ii .'l Jl _l J{ 64 .

,l,ar!.'I l .'IOȻ , r .,, .

n IOIiKe.p \fr. έ If .'1 R.JI II:

,'1 ;;. , n JI . - 61 CP~. p[J. 14-15; Prchist., . 141 .

62 :.1311. "01. 48, '1948. '. 47--49 ( .ll-~ll " lUI ' rC[JTe.% ()) .

63 . J. Arkell. . .: ..1. Baumgarte.l. The cultures of prehi.sforic Egypt~ vol. , LlJndon-Nw k-lJnt, 1960-.iblitl1(~ Orientalis. Jg. , 1! 1/2. 1963' .

. 27 .

64 , . 51; Notes, . 285 .

65 Gistshug, S. 67. .

jJ.:r JI JlblU .'1066 .

.

.1 .:r (. 1, 9-14), '8 .'I., l5I ' JI .

n".1, .l n i\k:\: n Ky.'IbType ~{ 'lllIIIJ. l\/! I ,1 .'I R .1\\ Jl ' , . .

l "! I. , u;r 'l n 1'RSJ, .'1'I, .:], ,, l.: ;1. , f(' I!.~ , .'111 , m ,I8 .'1.'.'Iܭ 3!1I. IIr: l\I ! 7 .

. ;ly~'/Tb, JI .,i1l\ , ,'I .:)' 1IIZl. II.l.J, I! l,t-, II n :\l Koc,iiHbJX ii 68 .

iill1 :lllll SJ HeKoT0;Jble Mf:i'l;'{Y )l,; .1f.1\'1!\1:t 11 I\IHTe.1i! .lr.rI:.1.! nr..... . l, ;l .'I :\I1, Kepa'\IIJKa .l. \f

-- , lll l,;, II .1 69. IO MOil\HO :\I, ~"l !I:!l Zl. :\olbJ :\I _l~, ,l.'I n:\'I iD1!I{ :\I .

. n l\1:\!Zl. 1I :'I )l.1 .l.1. .: lJ1i \I.1 [. l,:, npe1ieuperaeT ~I 1l0 ~f, :(, '! :\,/ l :\leJ:b JI , }1 Zl., JlJnker, Vorbericltt die n kt[mi der Wissensc!mften in Wien in Verblmluna m dem Egyptislla Mrlseef in Stk!lm Itnfl'rtl.1mmenen Gralmngen ! der ne1litisc,lren Siedlun[! urm A1erimde-Benisalame 'Jom . Nr:m 1981 bis 20. Jiinner 19.12, - Anzeiger kdi '\'iss.sllit in \\'i, philo~opl\isch-historisctle ss. 69. J~. '1932, \\!i t1l1d Lcipzig, 1933, :\Ir. I-IV (J,a.Qec - Mcr. ), S. 13 .

67 Gistshtlg-, S. 61-63. .

68 . JtJkl'r. Vor/tiufiger Bericht dJe zwei/e GClbung der Akademie der WissenscllUften i1l Wien allf der unrgeschiclltlic,he" Siedlung Merimde-Benjsa/ame 7. {/~b .~ 8. !' 1930, - zig(' der kdi '' Wis-scnschaftcn i Wic, p11i]osop1Jisch-histris!l ss. 67../g. ]900, Wien ttnd Leipzig, 19311 (.1J -- Mcr. I1). S. 35;

. Larsen, Knoc!lellgeriiie aus Merimde irt der iigyptisc!len Abteillmg des Mit'telmeermusellms, - Orien.talia Succana. IX, 1960, L:ppsa]a, [1961] (.1J - L.;, Knochenge), S. 49 .

6EI . . 17 .

)\ '-f 701. , .1 .rI, .'l I , , JI q. MaPKCi1CTCIo-I!!{ III , II , :\I lI.'l ii f :'.", , .'1. ~r J ; ~ ! ,'lJJ , lJfJ,'(I, ,:}U~1 ,lJ',;~ ! ;1.:\f ʭ , ,:fl!I:\I 113:0,1('II II. 11 ~ li:uJO l\ II J] JI .lIl ˷\;:\- 11 , 1I r KY,'IbYP J3 II::)jJ~.IJO bI'. 13 l1IIII 110.'III. HB,~CHlle Te;-'I, l:l-! (,l, ) !~.'I;"I ~lIl71 .

(!I3TOrbJ : .'I . ~ ;\\ ~l1 j"r 12 .

ii,:l i\1O:,leI!TbJ ~I :\I n III.IIJ !il, :::ii " 3,J.1I1 ,l .!! :.:Il' :\!'JlII :I J3lIlO ~l~ ,J.Il,"bJI .'l JJ , ull i (:i) Jl. C.'IcliyeT r:ll .'Iii Ii n lll lJO.:l I mlJ\fl lJO.'l lO:\f l .

J:)apJreprc,:1!) Il I3 ,~h lfi:\I~ llillll .Ji', [, , I(3!{ ,r J3.\I 1I.:JO\- lI .'l ;\! ll JlII 7. \!IO II\ J! .'1, .1If3 ,'! (f'), :\f .'I; ::,. . ,::lll' r.'1 74 .

. 14 .

Ibld., 1, s. 237; Larscn, Knachengerilte. S. 51-53 .

71 .

72,I\\er. 1, S. 179, 24Q; . . s. 60;,\\. I1I, s. 81; 11.,Junkcr, Bericht die funf von der Akadcie der Wis.~cnschaften in Wien und de EgypJiska Museet in Stockol untenamenen Orabungen u der nC:Jlithischen Siedlung,lItlimd-nislm rn '.9 .

u bis 26. Miirz 1933. - Anzeiger der Akademic der Wisscnscharten in Wien~, .

losophiscll-historische lassc, 71. Jg. 1934, Wien und Leipzig, Nr. , 11:), S. 132; Lar.:;en, Knochengerate,. S. 46 .

392 .

7& Prehist., .

74 Vandier, Manuel. . 106--1107: Orientalistisclle Litcraturzeitung:., lI956, Ng 7/8, S. 308-009 f OTTQ lI dI j',,1 ( 1) .. 2, 1956] .

..26 8I .'I r!~I .1 14 l1.,

- ;I.~ : . 110('I\ . (744+300) 73 ~I t':l llJl~1 lI .1 .1J , ;l 14 KY~Il..yp l\1I, 110 lO ~t. ~II.1I!h ,lii 3eJ'l lI .

1\'l!1O .:1O II! .~I, ll .:lh :\'iJr "'~illllfl ,rJl'-!II N\'l :(' .'I., . .lt1 tr.!I, :l :\iI i~ fI!I:I .'1 J' lI Ceilepe, '1. u.'J .'ll, BpeJ\BI, 9 .1.'t !\ J :: .

I3 Jt :'l :'-I.'1t.1'l'J\ .1. ͭ JI.1IO }~ll r ;,JllI, .10 11 76. 11. n f!, , ii , II.1, ")[ 'J . Kpol\!C TOl:O, ::\'l .1 Hll.'Ienbl II, I13llII II, :1.0.'1 lll),\ ~10r, l! 5 .1 :'-l i3lrIO~lO~1 77. r ~fl, t'.7m .:I lIlIIl, SI ~, 711, .1 J'II.1 11 0:'-'1 . ,, 06 I'0.':1 .:l \ .l I , .'1, .1 J1.0I!, .:lO '! u(,~l .1 . JllIfI, ;1.lIJ1 () fl : , 1 (i\I.''. J.i' "1), -- .

:'-'1 'lJ! J. , ;10.1 JI .l ,'I. ~'l.ilIc : D0, :, , .

,-1, I{() ., , J.N/ :: .1 :'\I .ln 75 ., ", .'ll,. l'I' " :\I}' .1 1 II (. J. Arkell, . .: . J. Baumgartel, The culttlrcs 01 prehistoric Egypl, LOl1nol1, 1955, - BibIiotheca Oricntalis:t, Jg XHI, M~ 3/4, 1956,,. 126); Geisteshaltung. S. 56-57. ' 78,. . . ''.It.: . \V. \Vhee!,cr, Early lruJia and Pakistan to Ashoka, Ne\v York, 1900, - , 192. 1! 3. 11. '181 .

77 Geisteshaltung, S. 62; . Caton-Thompson and . Gardner, The desert u .

London. 1934, . 56 .

78 F. Debono, El-Omari ( d'HClouan) s()ma~re sur les caP4gnes des . 568. Jouilles 1943-1944 eJ 1948, - ASAE, 1948, fasc. 2,

- . l{ .1 :

Il ' 19. : , , KOTOr,OMY JII II, Jl.'1 :lI J1 I3 . 110 .l .!I J' II . 8Jl :ll.Jb I IQ cv Il, 1\ u, !{ [I. . ['II ,:!\I1 u TO.IKO IlJl; :, .I, .'JII.'1Il, .'Ji .

(.'1. 1. 10--13). .

,1., , I .1 :l. . .1 l" 11 lJ 1l\ , J:)apIrcpTfO.'H. .'I 80, TC!\i . o.rIO :! :\-, ~ iI. ~lll :I1 [~(.!\ !I, III ,r, :l .'1. (~ (; .'I~1 OpH3MeJIO:\I) IlI-: ii I cpa 81. I3aYMrepTe"",, .l flͭ , ~' -.l-.\-\D U:J (' 26 _,, .'10II .~ . .1 :J , .1.1 , ,1 , TO~' J%, I 9. l , I .'I Il, .:J ;Jt :\II, .lJ.'l ii .1. IIJ\ Il, .1 IIU lte.;lbbI , , 03:\II I\IJl .13I, :\!Jl .'I ~2 .

KOT0!JbIe t'l :'! .

uapfreprC.Jb .l Il u .'I\I ErlI!lTCJ I Il . l ii. - . l\f.l:\I , VI :l:-'I . 3., . :\, ' rC .'1 ӭ lO~-I :' I1. - ' :l'! , Jl r..yp Z\,l t~. :\'! ' .

l.': f, 83. , 71 cp~. 11. 24. ll lIa:l-t ,'l 6~ \'andier, Manll/:'I. . 295 .

, . 29-30 .

lV, S. 82; Gei!itesllaHung, S. 6Z .

Gci~te~hal:lung. S. 7']-72 .

I.;IIO \' .1J . . , .l n Bpel\HI .ClIl2 l.,"I, . I.l(' .

.'Ili Ira:l,Il II llO , Jl ..'I JtO~fe GI!. , :\llll l{,- - lll,1.1Jll l.'l. II lI , ile,'lbY 84 .

..'i3 ,, .lll ' .1J II .

.CllI ;I - !, CKO.lb-,' :('{):'I1 .1JJ JJO;!, [,:J, I ll , ( f~laBax 4-~) ;1(~ ~ :\I.l 110 SI.\-I F.J1 :.I, J.:1l' , ll~ iI ~ .l l .-! . &JIOI'ii JI.:I jIO.18 (: ii, r~, :I!I1:\ ~, ,\r '. ~f.1J, .labl :\-1 . ii I , f ~1 U)I .. .l.1 .

f 1, II :\f : M3TCpllaJJblIble UCliOCTH, ]1.0 , , , jJ : n . ", II~i1 ,, .'1 .

dKoe .iJ:iII , ( .1ii :.l :\l), , II:I .13 - , . . t.' f; {{ J1 f' .l, .1 85 .

:\lO 1I0 !\'l.1 811 , "'l-! .'\('II}! :\ lI .lO I1;~ :

, ;I;l.% :IlI I3 ~l :\'1 .!JI (, 4) .

   

I{ , .I .I1 JI. , ' :\'! MeCTo'f , . , .

.'] (. .1 4) .

.1 .1 BpeJ\'leHH 1II l' , .'I~ .

,. :1I0, .ul3 'la.'I .'1 , - , :\-lO n.rI Ky";Jbype 87 .

:!I'.'I .l .1 lI, · . ii I Il ܭ .IJIIl , 11 , , 110 , .l I :\f. .'I n (). ,, " , 88, .'! I llO.'IIII .1 ]1 .lIIIIII ,;( JllOJI l\1., J:(.1 .

!"! ;l yr.'IDM (.) 89. ,, .r , 1\I ii J\ . .'1 'll'.'1, YKPCII.1Cl-, .llll .ll., ~1 ;llI~1 .'l-. .'J II, .!Ib ':l .l:lI, - JI V vnv !:, II - lI.'1 - 91, 87 .~il S;.~ .'i l'.'l 3ll , KOTOPblii :\ ~1 (II :(}.1:\!iI, ' '.'I ,, .1 . . .

,'1ll .1 ]j;'Ii;J .'1I. llll lI :l/1.lI lI:i J1' \11[ll1:I. ( ll KOII! II 'jI1 '' , '' ,c.ox;-t.fi) ,~, .il!)[JI!1 OI ll.Q'{) ', . C:PF., . '12: CPF. 11, . I: .

89 DiOSlf1., . 32, l. \'1, Bq:;(31-48): 11, . 135, pl. Xlll-~.'v2 .!J Gr llllfll ~1 r.\11I UJllI N 0111 ~ , 110 Cr.bl.CfKa GV.~I').~ .' .: Cl'f'H 1!\ r'.~.II (CPF., . 27), \l ~, , ;('J~I ,;,1I;~''I ''II'C"1t1'1I d('.~(\.'10';r;i. OCTal,!;! (' ''!1 '113 ''~l~~ ', ; .eJIII -', '(]II, OKn'~lee,~ IJ.l' JI n 11 . :1., .IJ i[-ll.ll l(i llt!l rld . t- TllOl1lpson. The Batlarian ciuili.~atiufI und predYllastic remains n Baduri, Lcln, 1928 (''1.'!-), . 87-88] .

.1 '!!'.'t''iiIll.().~Il . "l' lf'!'I}\.:ia'KO'~1 I"[Ļ (. . Gardin~r. Egyptian grammur. 3l ed., Oxford. !1~57, sign-list. 049)..'\'!. :tO....I.; ' ., ' :'.'!{).~(}.:lll,.CJ 10000000lJ .

IU ,', ~rr"l'. TII, )f 1 :1:11. ~ COOTBel'11Bye \':

'il{!1'O l!.l1I1l EnmTa, ' ..t ':l;3 !Cl rClICl''~1 1 .

g\ l'll .q, Vll () ~H.p sl .1lIIi ml .'Iǭ . . \, .1: .1, n .1J .

lO .'I 'l .

u " slO .!l .1 , n l\r, & Jl .

:\'I.:l Il slI :\fOlIx ;i I~, Il n .:: (IlO ), l . I ~ .:\1, .'I''f. -, :m , lI .lII . l\. II. .'I ~I ::;. , II.'l :\I Jl , 'Jf , , ;lJl' . il, 92 .

)IO\f :\IbI :.'J 11 KU.'lbua II (.'I KOCI,), I1.1 , .1, I{ .'I Jl ( 1\'1. . 172-0173) .

Il l\! , , u it.1J lI .1 ӭ . KPO:\fC , 1I1 KY.'JbYPY u .;) . . .10 . BlJile !lIIuii . .;!! II:\:, :\III. . . j\'\accoH , II :\l, '1 Hco.:JTa, l{ I II , 01'l Il'(), IJll' 'l10 ro[!oue. ;:.'lm !!, POO!!O~I , !! yc.~O!!I1e - .'1 :I!l !t, - 'I'('', I()' Il,'''I1 1l{'.11!('!mlii !l '!!.J. '60 'jJl'Q (. . Sl.':."., J./.,uu tl . - , '19158, ~y~ , . 2~.)2)_

92., iJ. 41. PC:iY"lbaTe ;:tJlI\. 'j1l'.1 .'1. l, !!

. ll" J\ 'r.r II II!' r'l"I JI' lll' !! ([ , . Ci' 49, 56, 79, 140) .

7el:'l, ." {] 'II, n\1,.J,.mro '.11Iѷ, ) Il'~~:t. ;

- 11 }Ibl '\:

IJI!JI "y.~bl'YPC :t'l ll .l. I !l II .'lI! :Ja!!oeBallHII l:: JI .1 [!llO .J.1l1~I O1K~..,a1'O JI::I \1lii :~' .1,II, l.n '10~I C.Y'Iae :\Ib! Q,l .;!\!

!!::l1l0 II.1J II .'1 ll'l . f1l1.. , .;l. IIU.1l1C. ' '!!3J1I t";lO "'', 11 . ,}Il';J,l ' :!JI,'l1I( j,~ lO'' m !! .'lIIII 'l (, . 40-42). .'1 .'l U!:\I ll !! , l! ..!! 'l !! II, . . .'l. . '1lz ~I , ;~.'I\ .1 ~. l\l.'1 !! . . BblCOKYIO (, . 2; 11, . 131) .

nroporo , , :lfJ1 Ky.~bypa .l .11 .1IOii .11 . , , .'IJI .

' J3 IIC . [\oIIPOC ;\,lIIII" :\I .l BpC~H:'Ha. .1 ѭ PO,lOBOro u 93 .1IIO, }! , n .11:, JI .;:I, aJ:LII ( ), ,,", II . n ~.-!X :lfaCTCpon. , t:aJ\, - .'I lll .

D}ll.~ .:IIll . :.' :\! !I . J. , .l J ,10 .,;\f 94 .

,1II0, :v!,fJI KY,~bYPI~" ;I,II1J , ; . ,fJ, . l\fbI ;:i.:\I lI !'t, ,10.

Iff L, .l,:

}I :lf, :\",,l _ ,l, ' :-! , .' - , 1. I lI .:J , if .

,fJ .'I n lI ,fJ ll.10 . . ,fJI 95 . . 96 .

   

07 . . ', },f , , - , , i', 19,1, . 32-'111, 157---f282; i} , .-., 1941 .

n .

. [1Q!!I!, COBp{!.~teHH(}e .. .

9,'1,\. . . C/!.~fbU iJpNleM , - , 195'1. N!! 3, (~Tp. 45-75; .u lJ /J .\! J::,~Unl'e, - ~' 'lI ӻ, 1948, N!! 78, , . 9, CT[J. 22-37; m' 8 ape(me.l! un, 1';JY.lbl a-,l'I!\!, Il1.l0II;1 'l', , 1\/, 1936, l'. 3153-390;

/'f )81U? .

101 , . Il, ,l.'1 t rR 8 . F.Ufl1, , I!7, 1, CT:J. 203-249; "CKopnUOIl;, u .II, 0', 1952, '1, . 49-67; :l dNl! 8/(. (1917-19,53), ., 19GI .

101 . . , 3 . R,'fli! (:.t, AP,lfG/iT) II ,-, 1918,.1\11 2, . 1,11-151; /()ll\ ll II{!i!(} ({!) apxau 1 1('(KIlIi (V--l V JlI!/!UU . .), ..'.I.~'I!'!1i'l !::i'!1'IIt!T.,('., ., 1950, CTI). 17:2-I,':;.4l/ciellt l::,lJ.ypt /!n/ ! agriculture,]}i"s (l'IIistoir'! iOlLlli:, ;"!LlIcbltlC'l. [\', !'!)S, Nq 4, l'), 81-81-7 .

lu2 ;l.!1, (/!I. .

   

);I.'l Jl ll ll bpe.\-lll Il:\1 . .l .1 .'l ii [1 .1.l0 :\ JI ll.JlIl. ~t ' \ Il HaC\oI :.'I Il. lI .l0i3 .

:, .'1; JlhlIlii , Jl J.! . .rr1 ll.'In .:JIO );r.13, 3 :\13Tc.plIa.la 3:J I1.1 .

lI~r . . _ [ .l .1. Fllf MHOI1C Il l\IIl 1 , .r J1 3 2, :-'1 I. I 1I0.lllIIO , (' IJέ .!lO . O;1:J:!aKo ! . ue.;JblI"l ; Il .:IO .1.1, lI 80 OL, ~ .'I .1 11 !l-tO.'1. J1 JO!l .1 I1l :\Il1:IO\-1 .1 1l.1eI!. JI ;II Il 11 uIO .

.'l JI.'I I \V. . . Petric 1!d J. . Ql1inell, Naqada and Ballas, Ld, '1896 (;ta.lJ.ceNaq) . 54; ..1I(, A1a1'C'/JuaAbt u "e.~ecAeft/Jle n(JU:V6 upeBl1ee(J , ., 19'5'8 (..l - ~\:l), '. 64; Cl. {iai1lar(l, Contriblliion l'{tllde pre1!i.~torique dc l'Egypte, - \' du musclIm d'histoire nattlrclle Lyon, "01. XI\'. [19~1]. Mcmoire III, . 109; F. [), El-Omari (pri!s d'Helouan), expose sommaire su les campagne!

des /ouilles 194.'1-/944 / 1948,- ASAE. 1948, fasc. 2 ( - Debono, Omari), . 568 .

2 . Stidff, Eine nu Art ugyp/ischer KU1ISt, - 4:IFl'.stscllJ:iJ.t Hir G. iE.bcrs .

Aegyptieca. Lei'pzig. "1897 (.1 - S.tein dorff, Eine n!! , S. 1123 .

: . ' .

10 , JI ( ), .'I .'I, lJ 4. , JI , .l:, .1 I! 5 .

ll .'10, R ~1 . .rl . , 'I .'I .'10, .1 .'1.rJ '. JI .l Ji :\1 .

. JJa . :\1 - .rJ -. .l.1 l , . .'lb . , .'I.rJ:\1 6 .

, , .l 10 .'1 .'I, .1 .1J .'1. .1 :\f 7 .

, .'1, .'I , , 8 .

, .'I 9, .'1 3 (1. lt 11l . Caton-ls, ll(! Badarian ciuilisatinn and predynastic remains Il(' Badari, Lon,don, 1928 (;ra.Qee - ), . 3; . . 664 .

. 54; Dl, Omari. . 568. .

/l\ 5 ,. 667; W. \. )-'1. Jctie, Prellistaric Egypt, London, 1920 (.1J - ), . 44 .

R. Mond ,1 . Myers, Cemeteries of.4rmant 1. London, 1937 ( - .), . , H~ 1514 (-17-65) .

1 ., . 1:37, X~ 1466; , . 2; , ()mari, . 568 .

8 . \V. Bl1tzcr. 'tu/ndslft.4gyptcns ("iillrend der Vorgeschichte und dY, nastischen Zeit. StlHlien zum L'orund frUllgeschichtlichen Landscha,U.~lJ)andel der Saha 11/, - AkadC'Ill:e (Ier \Vissel1sc.l1aftcll ud LittlTatur, M.ail1z, AbIla!ldlun~en der , :tllcmatisr.ll'latar\visst'l1scllaft1ic/H'1l l(1assc,,Tg 1193. :\"212, S. 88/46 .

\) '1921 . ! ~I.l :lO 8 F.rIlIlTC .111,;lEl:IO I.~eor.11I (. rral1kfuTt. Sillllies in early /t ! the Near East 1, Mes()poiamia. Syria ! ligypt mf illeir earliest iniltin, Ld. )921, '. Il:i) .

IIl',, !)'Y1"l!o(~ ..1J.!JW:lI ''Ill''.1 ~:.1- II ~" .

o.J,IIIIKO ;Jҷ .'! -;i,ff .J,[J'l, .113 ';) .l :);(.~. I('I~~IO:J 11 3Ka:.r1ll1 (m. ;1. 7). ,II ,II:. .~eca .IJ 'II' ' .(! ' '(1 BOlll)oC'~HHa 'j ~ (1.. \\:'. Btltzer, SJIldien zllm t'or'llfld trullgescllichtlichen

1.l!Iut.';hf/smll... S. 86/44 .

. lll .1 , , .JI . Jl : I-I: ,, rn JI (, , .l0, .). , Jl, ~(.J '. .l , .1 , fJ:J (-~ ) lI.l .l' .1 .

lI. .l, llllI.' a~ .l0 .1 10 .

.'ICCOB .J .1.'I ~(eCTa n .1C:I. .J XIX . - .J.'Ieca, 11 "l , :H~ca .J, '~lI .'I .1, :\l , .J tl:w . . Jln. .lJ , l\I .Jcca ,n , :-, Tece.J ' ', , , ';) ' ;L3.. .l IL~ .JI1 :\-I 12, ' r' OJ .

",f .lll l 13 .

'll',. - .'I, ,'I.(), :Me.JKOO ~f , r: , .1 ;I.O.,Il llll .J n F.ll. .

.Jeca .

.:r :'Ila.10 .1 tl' . ~f , !! . .'l .'I ,1l0, ~, , ), ].1. , :'I'fbI u .1 .10 nII:\-1 I, , .l,,.l

   

110 Il D .8.1 .'l II 10, 16. .'l e.rI , 17. . cTpe.'I,. , , ' 18, 19 .

I:, I I I ll .l . .1I , JIl .'I, . . , ' .1 .'I, yro.'Ib .

D~Clloro .'l IIl.l.'I .'l8 20. .'1 '~lO l. ' ; ll8 .'1 JJ .

",lbI :I,, .'10.1,.10 , .l, .1 , , - .l0 21 .

.'I.1J . ,'1, . U8JIJJ, IIl.1 ",IQ .1,.lJ. . .l . FI. Pctrjc. The nyal f()mbs n t/le first dynasty, pt 1. Lonuoll, 1900.15 ( - RT 1), . 9, 12-16. pl. LXII; . Randall-Macivcr and . . , Amrah.and Aby(Jos. London, 1902 (.1t' - Arnrall), . 25-2!:!, 33 .

16 W. Ernt'ry, preUminary rep::Jrf t.l tirst dYllasfy :) treasure {m N.?rth Saqqarall, -- ASAE. vol. I, 1939, . 428; G. Brllnto:l, M~)sfagedda and t11e Ta.;ian {;, Londol1, 1937 (.1 -.I\\ostag.), . !:!2, ;\11 1679; G. ut, 1l1atmar, LoncJol', (..1-.I\\tm), pl. ; Ill., . 136, N~ 1518 .

17 . d 1, 1930, . I, S. 39Balcz, Die altiigyptische Wandglie{lerung, - MI)JK, \'-\-'II. :'I :lIIl I1Ipe:'ICHH II I-I\' II, 92, Taf .

S8 {) Itept'na, .: . . 8, nepava , ., 1962, . 112 .

18 RT 1, 1. LII 7, XXXYII 44-46, . 2'1, 28 .

19 Mostag., . 8!:! .

!., . 680 .

21 N!J(I., . 25, N~ 162; Amrah, . 2. N~ 139; Matmar, . 15,.N~ 3075, . 16, N! 3129; Amral1, . 18, Ng 37; . 23, N~ 74; Ill, . 135, J\~ 1511, 1466; Naq., . 24, N~ 3; Mostag., . 82; G. . Rcisner, /l f/Lgil survey n Nubia. lli!J/~gil repart, { /907-/908, "01. I, Cajro, 1910 (,l - Rrisnrr, "'iubia), 133: 17:68; m., . 136, N~ 1481; Rcisner, Nubia, 116:17:7; N\atmar, . 16, J\2 3131, . 17, N~ 3074,3111,3129, 3072, 31'31. 3073, 128; m., . 26, N~ !':6; . . Pcct, The cemeferies [ Abydos, pt , London, \1914 (,ltt - CA1Jyd 11), '. '18,.N~ -44;

.8,", , 22. .'I n . .l, paccaBJleHHble - , , .'I 4-5 ReTOK, ){ .'I 23. 13 , -il.'IO, ,11 , 24, .

lu.olO .1I , II (CM~ . 1, 12, .'l. 2, 10) .

, ), :'l.1 :l-t J , :1 . :: , 1l'l, , , II , , , n .'I. Il .1 ~I .Io u .

.'I ;1.II II .'I..'I 3 C,It 25. ...: .'I .'l. :\-lO. .1.'J .'I . :\1 .iJ n .'I , , .'I N' , . 1( , . .

, { ~'apHoe .'I , .:lO n.rI .rr.'!l3. 'I i1.l.' I '1. . R ) 884 . .'JO \I)I IJll nr.I1 O!{O.IJO .l .'I .:l .'l 74 . 6 C,~! (. 2, 11) _ ;!. ll ~ Ber..rJO, i1 .1 TOIlbJIle, 'I f' pYI,e, - JJ l(.'1. Kf)Hue il10 ilI .'l . KlJbITa ! . \Il! I! I1-0 , II, nJO.'1 :\' YC.'IO!HIO~f JJt:, !I1 l1 .l, .1 !.l . 110:\-111:1-10 J lI1I\Illll . .lII(,Jl . lIII j)'Jf, I, :..:l,} , JI! 22.~l. Amcr and . Menghin. /t excavations ; t!ll! El;yptian Univer.~ity in t!ti!

molithic sife at Maadi (first prel.iminary rep~}rt), Caio. 1932 (..1I-( 1), J:p. 5,15 .

23 Ibid., .15 .

24 , . 80-R7 .

25 u.,"'l.egllil11, Die Grabung der Universitiit lli bei Maadi (Drifle,. GI'abllngsjahr),-MDIK Bd \1, . 2 (:ta.1,ee-,'\'\t 111); S. Il'6. . . Gdir, Egyptian gram, d cd., Oxfod, 1957 (t' - , sign-Hst. U 2 p.. n .

.'II. 26 1V Jl. . , 27. 2/1 .

(', , - (?) . 29, :, .

. : . . : . .~.Q , ., , , ', , 1. HeCKOJIbKO (' 2, 1.3) 32 . . 3. :\1 4, - 5 .

JI, , 36. 7 JI 38. , 26 G. Dar!'ssy, n cassetI}le prehistorique n bais de Gebelein, - ASAE, vol. XXII .

1922, . 17-32, fig. 1-5; . Kantor, predynastic astrich with inc.ised decoration,JNES, vol. , 1948, . 51 .

27 . . Wink1~r, Rock-drawings of Southern Egypt, vol. 1, London, '1938 ( - RD 1), . 8, site 26, . 9, site 34-38: vo1. 11, London, 1939 (a.~ee - RD 11), pl. 1.2 .

28 J. . Quibell and W. F. Green, ierakonpolis, pt 11, LOld, 1902 (.l - ic rakonp. 11), pl. LXXV ,. .

Eine nu Art, S. 123 .

2g Steindorif .

30 F-G. signlist, T 14 81 R. Engoelbach, lntroduction to Egyptian archaeology with special n to the an musum Cairo, Cairo, 1946, . "'28 .

32 stQ'.. pl. \'s; , pl. V I -2 ~l1f1 ,8., , :re 6 ''OI! Ng 56 (, l. I 29, XXV I -2), .'1, ' .

r II. :~ (. Hickrnann, Le castanette egyptienne, - Bulletin de ' ~oClete d'archeologie copte:t, \'01. XIV, 1950-1957, Le,Caire, '1958, plP. 1-4fl). Maadi.J'II,.S. 1.16 .

Mostag., pl. XLI 111&, . 89 .

4 Mostag., . 89 .

35 . Massoulard, Prehistoire et protobl.~loire d'Egypte, - Uivsȸ de Paris. vaux et mcrnoircs de l'lnstitut d'tllg-i:t, Paris, ""01. LI, 11949 ( - PrChist.) .

.210 .

36 R.D 1, 1. III 2 ; RD 11, . 6, pl. 2 XXXIV2, 37 ,1!!. /oIu IC 8 /oIOBblX /n/, ., (.l ) .

i1900 . . .

311 ierakonp. , l. LXXV ,, .

, .'Iέ ,. .'! .1 Jl ~1 39 .

.1 , ~'I .'I II Jl.. Cl . , - . , .l0 .JYKa n:\1 .

CKaJJaX, I, :\lbI ~IO:\'I (\, .JyK. ; II 1Jl n , .JIIII , 40. \\ . . IJIa 41, :\lO lIepLl , II.1 .1 42, '! .'Ib8a ~I (Ta6.'I. 2, 12). , .

:\10II Jl II, .1 ~1epe c-rII.'1 ~1 Il:\4 3 110:\01 .JYKa lI :\l . -, l Cl ii . II.l , CI Il .10 ,'I .1 cTpe.'I, .1 CTpeJl , Jl '8 .JbB3 44 .

110 , .1.1 crpe.J +:. JI, ' .l ;1'l, , I' .

, 110 II lI :\l (. 2, 9), Jl , ;l IIJ! Jl 46 .

pa:\fe, :\1 .1, !{ - 47. :" ll, .'I, , Jl

   

" .l!! Cl\'I . JI .l~ ,:llV: 1) ~I.'I.'I .l0 .'1 ;J r.rlaI:lHbl~t :\1 Jl , iI ]1.li1J1 ll J rod.'IIIO HJ\.'I ([l :~.l .1{Q ).'II,, - II,! Jl.'I ..1. lllII 1.1011 II ':l}I:-'-IO G ~IlO .'IHTb llII I; 2) R ;1Iέ :\, :\I Bpe:\IeHC~I; ) :Vlt l:: :\lt{ [! r,JI l , :1 ..:-/I IIaXJ:I.Ka~1 Ibl . l .

FaYlIm, 47, XXX 1 N. I:::m, T/le (:Jll1 / Hemaka, Cairo, 1938, . 33, l. .

49 W .

50 .Petrie, l::gyptian hieroglyp//s { / first and sec()l!d dynasties, London, 1927 ( - Hicrogl). 1. XXXI\! 810-,16; [G, sign-list, U 1 .

51 Reisner, Nubia, 116: 17:6, l. 6-5 5 .

~BqHHbIX 52. , ', ~ . F. , .'l :JO , 1, JI .J l\".~. :'f .l . ( lI ). l\ '-! .r ll . , ,,10. .'1 r .

:.1 il r (.:1. 2, 1) .'1..r 53. :;, I3 , or , :'.I ,::\f .

.'1, , 1.'l , :.18.'1 ( ) .;J (I\ ). :1.0.l l\IOTblry II . .l 113 n -Jll~IȻ [I .'III-"!, \I -. J\.\ rlI:\1 .r. ~-IO .~Ia 54. TOI\IY l\lO . .r .'1, l\-Ibl lI , Ll.:J,1 , :\{ , I .'10, , 110 , Q :\-lO Tal{ , , - , !-Ie ,10 , .'1 : .1J . [~YCKa ('. .'l.1J ll , [1 [.'1i-ilI1ii .1;I pOCTK01Iil : yr.10\-I, ,;\I\1 ..'1 l\-:llIl !\ h. !\ 55 .

l! lI~,1 .11ȷ . :Il'0.1 :\f n .

.1 lI)Jrr -- . ll .'1u. "\, :.'10 56 .

~('II r npCJC\IC'Ta 57. elo 25,6 . II II .'1 rt

   

.1 , , .'! . II~f.10 , .

.'! .l I (6.'1. 1, 8), .

CTpeJIaM, I ~! .

B~eo.:I .' .'! .!I CTpCJI J! . .'1 lIl (.'!. 2, 5) 62. , F- .'! 3 5 ,. ll . (thread) , Ilέ ;I . , .

, ~l, .'1.'1 , .

.'!"I .'1, .'10 ,'1. , , .10, .1 . , I.'10 - .10 Jl , .

.1 .10 , .1. I.10 58 . Rkth, Zur Technik des Bohren.~ im n Agypten, - , \itti!ug des Istituts. .

fiir Orientforschung-. Bd VI, . 2, 1958, S. 176 .

59 Amrl/I. iP. 17, l. . Ng 202 .

60 . EG, sign-list. U9.20.21 .

81 . Scharff, Arcllaologische Beitrage zur Frage der Entstehung der Hierogly.ohenschrift, - Sitzungsber.ichte der Bayerisc/len Akademie der \Visscnscha[ten, phi1osoptlischhitorischc AbteilHng, Jg-. 19412. . , ;/Il',.19412, S. 45: C~f. EG, sig-st, U 6 ; ic rogl., 1. XLIII 1014,1111 '-1020 .

2 J\\.:Jtmar, l. VII,-, . 21 .

., , , -lO, .l0 , .

) :. ,(.'1. 2, 3), :-'II , .rl.rI .1IIII :\-I 64. .ll3, n .

~ ll ll : . , , , j( :\R.rI1R, " .rI, r. 6~. :bJ !. , .rII\'l, .rI, :\" PYJHI f (. 2, 4), BTJpblM Jl 66 .

:!JI.'1o, .'lJlI lJ .1lo ' 11:\-I.r . , . 'lO 'lll , :\l.'1 .'1 _ Ka:\leHHblX , , . , l 67. '\ :\I .rI, .l8, , .II. .'17 , kpC:-'-Ibl.'( ( l.'1 軭 ) . .'1 Ka:\fCHHblX .'! , , .'1 .'! .rI. .l :\:'.l, -Jl n, .l1, , , !'.I . , .'10 , .::r , .l1.'1If, ' .;/ I,. (1 , .l1 : :;lI, :\ :\.l0 )l, - ~.l, .1 ll .'Ib! (. . 117-118) .

II .'1 S. .::r . '1Il .'! :I l. - ,IJ . έ :\I)'. i1 '-I .'1.'1, ll nJ,. .'1 R.J .'10!{ i .1 FI 63 . .l. .

64 , pl. LI\'j5, N~ 3759 (39-44) .

65 Ris, NlIbia, 123:17:68 .

Amrall. . 2], l. .,\~ 102. .tm, . 115, 21. 1. X',.'J46, N~ 3()80; F.. R. AvrG,;

{ -!\ \\'. S. {.oat. Pre-d!lflllstic /!! l F.l Al11hasna, LOrloon, 1911. rl. "'!."."I~ H-~5, . 21, (11. . X~ -23: pl. XIXs, ;?. \9,32 .

1 R-D 11. \. XXX\'I. n. 21 .

~. . . , I/!nQ 7'CXNIIKa, -- .1 IIJlt'"Il .έ IIȻ, .-., N~ 54, 1957, (1. 209 .

1', , :\-lO , .:J() .

0 .

.1l .,.i1 () .

.1 1{Q II. .!}' , TO}'I, 0110 .1.l0 69. .i1, :\-lO~-I , .'l .'IblKO .

:. Ii - .:'f I, .:IJI . .l.1 : , , :\l, .

, .J.:

. , JI , - 10, .\l JI , .J .

.l-:'I -, :.!, .l I 71 .

, .'I .'! . u , :.lar 72, -I .

(.i1. 2, 14), I .lI.:I.l:\-1 73 ,;::{ ~f. ,;, .:I ' l\-r- JI, :\-I14 .

(. 2,8), .Ja, 75 (61. 2, 7), 76 , .'I 77 .

.1 (. 2, 6) 78, ', . :ll .

.rr, .'IJ .

.rr 79 .

, Ir' ;

.i1, .

.

79, pl. LXXVIII 1, . 49, pl. LXXVIIJ 2 Maadi 1, 70 Ris, Nllbla, I'J 6: 17:7 .

11.~\atmar, . 19,,;\'2 2 [-t. .

12 . . 40, l. XLIX,: 01. Prehist.,p. 149 .

13 S. Gl\'iII, TIle Egyptian t/leriamorpblc '{Jes.~els in British museum, - JEA, }. II, 1926, pl. XII, . 56 .

7. Matrnar, . 20, N~ 2682 .

iS . Amcr and .,\\gili, The excava/ions !' the F.gyptian University in the n lithic sile at Maadi (second preliminary report), Cairo, 1936, pl. LXI 2, I.l .

76 Mo!'tag., pl. XLII 46. ,J,II.' I~-! Ol\! (. J. Baumgartel, The cLlltures of prel!istoric Egypt, L(l, 191-7, . 49, . 3) .

17.\-\. Hous, La photograpMe scienlifiqlte u service des epigrapflists, - Bulletin dtl Laboratoire du Lou\'re, Paris,.N~ 3, 1958, . 23-35; . J..r..\. . Jss, mul' Egyptologioal bibliography, - It"til ssciti or 'Egyptologists, Lid, 1969, .

. 102,,N\! 58313 .

78 Matmar. . 119. pl. XVI 4s ; CAbyd ', . 15, N~ U 7, !. :16, 2 U J7 79 , pl. XLVIIII, . 59 .

80 , . 43 .

, .'! .l, ,jI rll l\lO..I. , U.J. l\I .l, I , l\.'10 81 .

.1 .1 paCCl\IOTpeHHblX .1 .rr , I\I l\o'lbl I]{\I . Kal\'leHHbIC, l{.lIl II.1 , , ' . JJJ , I-Ia' ' l\'I .'I, ' .1 , ~ ll .10 .1I , .1I .l\lII ll.1aJI ,j]UJO nlO . . , . . Ce:'lleaOBa (\1. . 71, f. 41), l\ . ll il' :..1, ii . . .\n 'l'! l . n ;J,''IG n:'II ;,hl. \I .'!

, Jl.'! .1' ., , .1~!'t'l , 1I,lI Jl Jl:l , J\ax , ~. ';l (ll1 l' ,~1 .' .l .

~I ;J,.1, .'I~I.Il II3'ȭ .rIiln .'i !\H~He : (.1,) .:. Jl0ح .:'lI!J., .l .

1I~.:ICCOB ll.'lll f.l .l !)!.l0. ..1, 0 BpeJICHa F: JI ;]IIlI IlJl ii:

.;I, ,.'1)' fl. (;\lO , CTpe.I), , , , ':i . .:l.1 :\11.10 ,J.;.I , Jl ' .1 ) Il n il JI. II JIO.1l'J1I .

} ).I Jl)1 fl !\ !l1 .;1O JICHCC ~laTepIIa.'JO;"I, :'I! ,:),:'!. I10.l30~IO .'J ;\ ..'.l, I\.'lIIII'l\1 ~lO, lI : bl U.rI.lI, , OCJlOBHbJ:\-1 JlJI .1 .... .1 .

OAHal(O I, .1.1, , l10 f:i, .'lo :\l . ~lI iInI , \: , , ) ,.'I, , , u, ,;.'. 46,,)1,2 3264 .

41' JI: .1(~ ll .1 , .'1 .

.'10 Jl JI .1, .1 .

~.l0 , ll.1 .1 t!, , .1J.1I .:J, :801'1 .'1 , .1 JJ .

, ., :.!I Bpe~leHa, , .l0ȭ .l, ~f .1, 82. .'1II: , J , , ),1 .1Ji . :\1 :\-t.'10 IO;l('J~ .l0 I3 ~lI . .1 iS :\l1'1 ~f n f .'10 .'1 Kpe!l-IbI, .

rI.1 n ~ ~I J1 .1, , ~1 , !\1 .1 nh .l0 .

   

.l , .1i.J . , .'10 , I1JI, .rI; ,i u'IerKO 'J'JI , ~,. .'\. , . , ~, .I , :l-f .l lIO , l .

POI'OBblX . . CTBOJIa, - (r. 3, J) 1 .

IJ ~t 2 IO ҭ 1 .'IO .

.1 ' - li P:JrOBbIX , ll.l .1 , \I .il Jl 3. ( .IJ) ;: . . 35-40 4. POOB~ .1 J1 :JCI, ii , I.I : 5 .

~l ., .'1 , , .'1 .l, ~lit flOl"II 'Jii lO . ,

   

. . / 4 '49 ,~.(\~, m..1 6. .11 , ' . .'l. I. I-I , (6. 3, 2). 7 .

.1 ' .l. , , - 8. , .l, .

- , }! : , pa'ClC~'OTpeH . JI, 9. JI ' .', ' 'JI '11, 10 .

.JI-JI JI . 12 ~ 11, (6JI. 06 .1.1 3, 10) .

,. . , , 13. " ..J .1JI JI (Ta6JI. 3, 11). Q.1I J.1I . , , .1 I . 14, JI .1 .'I \, }I 15 .

. Ran1dallMaci\'cr d . . , [ m}/ and Abyd()s, London, 1902 ( Arnrah), pl. II 2 ;,\\tg.. . 74,,N'g 4010 .

7 Naq., pl. LXII Jo2,,N'g 142'5, '1759 .

8 Mostag., pl. XLII 43; .,1\-1enghin, Die Grabung der Ulliversitiit Kairo bei Maadi (Dritter Grabungsjahr), - MDJI(, Bd , . 2 (.. - Maadi, I1I), S. 1'15 .

!I , . 31,,N'g 1338 .

10 . 10 d G. tllS, The Badarian civilisatian and predynusti mains Badari, Ld, 1928 (.'1.Jl - ), . 43 .

11 . and . Menghin, The excavatians 01 the tIl UniversiJy in the n site at Maadi (first preliminary report), Cairo, 1932 (.1 - Maadi 1), pl .

LXXVI12 - 15; . 1 . Mengbln, The excatlati()ns of tJle Egyptian Uniuersity in the neoliillU: s'ite at Maadi (second preliminary repart), Cairo, '1936 (.1 - Maadi 11), l. LXIII s I(l III'.'l .'! l paCIPpOlC1:palleHbl ,h10"1 .'1 :!I. (.'!. , 4). {.,Ls. KnachengeriiJe u..-\4erimde lin der agyptischen Abteilu des M.itte[meermuseums, - Orientalia Suecana:., IX, ;1960, Uppsala (19611), (,1:.1Larsen, J(nochcngeriite). S. 34-38]. .

12 . . Reisncr, The archaealogical surtley / Nubla. Archaealogical repart, {, 1907-1908, vol. 1, Cairo, 1910 (,:J, - Reisner, Nubla), 17:55:66, '17:90:18. pl. 66 18 .

65i.6I9; , pl. LVIIl 6 2078, LXX29; Mostag., pl. XLI 33-34,43 .

.6 13 , pl. LVlIII6,e; J. Garstang, Mahasna and Bol-J(h.alldf, London, 1002 (..'1 .), pl. 'IV; Maad,j , pl. LX.J.II .

14 . Gat.on-hompson and . Gardner, 1 desert Fayum, London,. 1934, . 33; , .

.

. 4i2 .

11 Maadi 11, pl. LI 4 pl. LXIIl 7,, .'J ~1 . ll .rJI'h .l (.l. 3, 9) 16. Il ~'1hI C.lO:\ol.aIlHblM ( .l. 3,8,14) 17 .

Il D l1vlh . (. 3, 7) 18. paHH~p .1l' 7,5 ,.1 16 ., ;lI' : UL ;l)' () aJ{'l !JlI. .; ." . II rapllYHoB , . .'I~I ' , .13 19. ,l( pO.lb .l , .lJ . , , .r .1 . ' .1 :.I 1 :\IO .

, .' A~lep Il, .lJ 8 l 8,.IJf, l , I' - .:J n;l 20. . .

10 )I .'I.lJ 21. , ' ., I (.lJ. 3, 5). ll, 22 .

' CTpelbl .1J (I ) 23. 3.'J CTpe_IKY ( ) .'I~1 , .'1 . Ta~'! II cpe.;lbl 24 .

,., ~1 tl, -. ޷f!IJlr bl , . :' \li R('islicr. Iu, 1124:il,i:'18: '. pl..LXXH I29; Mostag.. pl. XLI'J4; G. llt, Mllt , LOl1dnll. 11948 (a.~eE" - Matlllar). p.l. X\,I 42 11 , . ,l. LI\'l1 .

18 , pl. XXXIV 406, !li1! '1700, 1606; ll. N2 2'1, pl. X1I4 .

19 . .1 ,l, ~-I.:J 'lf[ l1I ni". II: 8'iJ1''ll lfl '. ' iiJ.l /lllIO opeUK'Y, ., ,'l h,iJit ' .t\ (t: ::t~.',' ~~OMeIlT 6n {. .1, , ., 1958, .. 40) .

Maadi 11. pl .

XYIII 5 W. J. 501135, Ancient hUrlters, London, 1924, . 363-364, f.ig. '176 .

Larscl1, Knochengerte, 5. 38, . 4, (Ng 12742), S. 40 .

2:t Naq., pl. LXl 14 Ng :!ll (49--63), i ()'t'_~'II '!'N:'IjJI,, ,KOroporo llll , (. MossoLllar'd, Prehistoire et pmtohistoire d'Egypl.e - cUl1iversite dc Paris. Tra,'aux ct is de. n.!ltut d:thiOI()gi~~ Paris, LIII, 1949 (Jl. - PrCllist.), . 208 .

Naq., pl. LXi1Ves, N! TS7 (69) .

25. ~ JIll .

iJ, If() (. 3,6) 26 .

~ .'I (Ta6.iJ. 3,3); , Jl ;\~II_'1 27. (. 26) .

I .lJ , 110 I .1 .'l !l 28 .

-.'1 (.'1. 3, 19) ll .1 . .'! .'1 ~10ȭ . .'IO '" 29 .

: (. .'1I 3, 18), Mormf, -.lJ, , .'1 n . , .'1 :10 .

l\l .

, .1lI 31 .

, ~ liJII , .IJl\1 .

: :, ', -, t.'1 .1 ~ , ~I . ȭ l\1 , :-"I .10 .1ӭ ~IJl .1 . :\1 , :'vI - (. 3, 15) 32. , .1 33. l .

TyaJleTHbIe .'! . έ -.'1.

   

.'1 , .' , Ta~f ,!} I10˭ 34 .

, !( J1 .'1 \~ , . J1 ~,eHT ll.1ii 35 .

l1J' l, , ,1 (. 36. , 3, 17) .rJ.'1 .

r~I . 37 II"l ', HacTo.'IbKO , '{ ,1 38. - - ,~lI , .111 I\!. TaKlle - J Q~I lI (.1. 3, 13) .

lll.7lb .1 iI op"a~lelll0:\'1 (~'1II) 39. ,!}.1 rOJ10BbJ t . 3, 20). Kp0:\le , II I'.l . .l0 .l:l, J(, !{n !,. , Jl r .1, :\I :I JJ'l , , - 40. .

JJr JI.1 , Kpyr.rIe . l'(' (. 3, 16) 11 i 41. , .1e-J ~' ,l - II .l u 42 .

G (6.1. 3, 12) 4. , l\1, ,!} ~fI, .7l , .'I 44. .'I .

34 I)trsi, Taf. IV"39.34.44 .

Maadi I1I, S. 115; Mostag., . 70, 1. XLlI sz .

26,I\-\ostag., pl. L1I 44 : N.. pt. LIX s: .t, pl. l- .

31 Naq., l. L - 52: . pl. LII r .

38 Matmar. pl. XV1 16 ; Abusir, S. 55 .

39 . pt. LXX I28 ( ); Mostag., pl. LII 4 ; Reisncr, NlIbia, . 142, fig. 310 .

40 , pt. , N2 11 1; . . !, Hle cemetl!ries [ Abydos, ! 11, London, \!J14 ( - eAbyd 11), . 19, N~ 4346 .

41 Mosta~., pt. L 24 ; Abusir, Taf. 6 .

42 Diosp., pl. 2 .

43 [3. 1. L TH6Z',,, .

4. Maadi 1, . 50, pl. LXXVIl 10 .

J{Ii- .'I . .l , 45. .'I -.'1 , .1I .1J 46_ -.'1, 0pHa:\feHTOM. .

, IJ .'1 JI ,, , - I-:.:\1 47. l\I , ' .1 , II . 48 .

.'1l1 .'1, .rlO ~I , JI .'I , , . Jl JI , Heco~lellHO, .'l .'I POfO)I. ;IO ', IOCTb .'l :\lJIa JI .

.'I . , , .'I , , , 'Hop:\laJJbHbIX . .1 ( ) , 2,5.4t .1J .. 85 . , , YTOJ1IO. .1 .1 .

H~ .l- .1OJ Jl(~ II. II JI .1',;r .'10 .'I, XIX . ~l. OJ, .'I .'1 . 49 Te:\f .'I.'! .'I ', , , . .'1 ~.'I , , .l, .

.'10 , 1'. Ibid., . 50, pl. LXXVJlI2-I .

Naq., 'pl. LIXa; ., pl. IV229; Mosta!!,., pl. XL1II 28 .

47 Naq., pl. LX 20, LIX.,8,lo; Maadi 1, pl. L: "17 .

48 CAbyd , . 4, pl. lI; , . 102-103, pl. LXXI 78 .

40 J. Capart, Le debuts de l'art n Egypte, Bruxells, 1904 (n - Capart, Le debuts), . 72-76,130, 153, 190-191, 245 .

, . 51. .l.'l, , :\-I m 52 .

J ~1 .'I , ~I, , ~1 .rl: .

(.0 .rI, , , . J10 :\-[ . , XIX ., .!' .rIu .'l .rI }t. .!'/() .'lI, , , Jl 53, , rJlaBHbI;\! .'l 11 l, .lJb, 1I.l, lI i:l .'! I, ]{Q I\ 54. l\, ,:r il I!, .l CjlOHonoI"l l4 CTpe.'I 55 .

.'lIf n (i ,~II .; ..l Jl 1 I ,1011O!30 ]{, d CJIOHOBOii , l' u .rl' }(II PaHHC~l . lI .:J ) .r:rII 56. 13 ll

-.r:r - J3 ,'! 116JIeHHbIM ~l.'I~t .'I .'IO. l'Jl.r:r , u6 . I .'I/ .'l, l\-fl . , . 29-31 .

51 Prcl1ist, . 119, 125, 115-149,209-210, 304-306; J. Vandier, u! d'/rt11l~)i ti{!Il, \'!. 1, Paris, 1952, . 213-211, 218-219, 388-395, 402-403, 426-428, 533-560 .

02 . . .lII", tl COCCa~tux , ., 1938, . 90 -92 .

53 J. . Qtlibcll and W. . . Petrie, ierakonpol:'s, pt 1, London ]900 (J. ik. 1), pl. \,'1405, \'11]1-7; \V. M.l:-l. Petrie, AbydJs, pt II, London, 1903, pl. III,7-10, XIII, 1112,15. IIII6.22; J. gtl, Rerherche.~ Sllf [e.~ origines de l'Egypte, vol. 1, L'!lge piere et les meiClHX, Paris, 189 ("'l - ReC!I.), . 19-:3, fiv,. 701-7 )'3, 6~-678;

W. . Fl. Petrie, Abydos, ! 1, LdIl 113002 (a.~e-e - A1JYli. 1), l. XL V~D-~I. \V. . FI. Petrie. The rnyal tonzbs 01 the first dynasty, pt 1, London, 1900 (., - RT 1), . 28, pl. XXXVII e .

54 Rech., fig. 687; W. . . Petrie, The royal tomb.~ 0/ the earliest dynasties, pt , Lond(\n, 1901, pl. VH Ar5, XlIs,9; Hierakonp. 1, 1. \, XIII-~; J. . Quibel1 and W. F. Gre, ierak~np'JLis, ! 11, 1. XV.- ; Al)yd. 1, pl. L1 19: RT 1, pl. X\I-H; W. . Emery, 10 01 emaka, i, 1938 ( - Hemaka), . 48, fig. 22, 2I2a .

55 Hemaka, . 45 .

~8 :vr " .JI. , lI .

   

ll -, .

UJ.10- Il 57 .

..1. . Ci JI'-.'1 58 .

. .

ll ~I (. 4. 1) 59, .10 ,,"l llll , ,,"I. , tt u 60 .

. G.1 , , S1, , .1l JIO 111, Jl, I3DJ1 Jll1 I .~ , , MOrJla Jl .

5~10 JIOI' . JIO , .1 . .'I .

.1 , .710 Jl .

Jl , : . ~f , , , .

20 :) 8,, 62. .lJ , Jl 63. .'1 ,_ .

   

JI : ll .

If ~1 .1 :;\'l (.1. 4, 9-10, 15-16) .

\f , l\'1 II .

~' .'l J10. :J II\f:J. 66 .

Jl .'II liJlUIOl\'1 ,f . II 1 1 (.,. 4, 4. 14) 67. .lJ .'1i. !I .1 .

.lII . .'1JIe , . ; D. .'1l,, C.~eKa .'I (6.'1. 4, 2-3) 68. 1 , .'l . I I1.ll, \V. M.FI. Pctric, Tools and weapons, London, 19I17,p. 62 .

65 . Deneditc. The rnun it;or!l. - JEA. vol. , 1918, pl. IV, pl. JI, pl. 1, .

. 227, fig. 1. pl. XXXIV; . pl. I'\' ,4; . t, Thc /inal pllase / predYlstic culture, n Senzaiflcan? - JNES, \'01. III, 1944, . 125-127, pl. . .

66 R. ! and . Myers, Cemeteries of Arnzant 1. London, 1937 (Il - m.), pl. XLVI, N9 1438; Diosp,. pl. 2 ; . R. Ayrton and W. S. Loat, Pre.dynastic cemetery at l Mahasna. London. 1911 (-h), l. II2, ; W. . Fl. Petrie, . . WainuriglJt and .'\-\ackay, The Labyrinth, Gerzeh and Mazguneh. London, 1912. pl. IV .

61 CMah. pl. .; Amrah, . 34, pl. XlIbl .

1. Prehist., . 179-I!, n. 81 .

II . , .l . :.\1 , , ;, JI 69. .l -, (.l. 4, 18) .

~1 KJIblKa ' o'J .l 70. , :\l, . " .'IO , .' :\l. .l .I .I (. 4, 13), .'I 71, ' .Ia, ȭ 1 TCCblIbI .'1 :\ 72. .1Ȼ opHa~feHTa. :\'l :\,I ( ), .l0 , .'1 73. l\έ ' a:\fy.leToB . l\IeCTO - . .l .f f .1 74. l\'\axacHbl Ma.ICHbKOO JlI (. 4, 9). -, , 75 .

' 'Pl ' , 16 .

lJ , MaJIO. ~f -l.l, .'l .

   

58 '' 01', .1I I8 (' ) .1.1 79, I n IJl qyc , 80 .

I10,1:l 1"I1:\I , ,;Ilt .'! , (,'!. 4, 17, 19-20). )';O,'lbua n .l'[ : .'1,lI', KPYloJlbIe ', : ;n;'l.'I~ .l01I :\! 81. )\.\ .1 : !IO '.'1 II ;) )! . u .11UI BPC:\ICHII, KaI ' :J Ka;IbI~C , .:\-I.'I:\, u:'l-!

. L().1.;,! !lpc.. !e!lC~1. ..1~I II.'lJ Bpe~1eJl'1I :\, II .

,'J.,1.!1 Bpe:\IH U.'l..:J .JlI .'ji CK)";']bII !IOOIii KUClI. :\1 ((l6.1. 4, 12) l\:'l' lln L'Ui\1 .'1, "''\ Te.'IY L' I u '.1 82, JI ,'1,:\' ~ : .1, .l 8~. :l.1 I ..'llIIl J\().' 7 ! ::\1 JII, II I (:J. 4, 8), 3.'1 J..1 , .'lO KOClI l\-[ ,'I/ , .'1 . , lI ,l .'I , J.1.:\-I , II .l :\-I .;'] :lICHb, ,;J . lI , .'IJ3 -l - , - .1.l .1. IO , :) il. l\I.'l Jn'iJ iiI .

ll II [ IIIlI :10 .;'] !l[ I :\-I ,-[ 3lI;It.IiO .lll I. III i-l J3 Jl J1J3 ,l,I1 I1 11 .

.'! II .'I. II'lll . ~Ia.lo .'! .

. .l, .10. .'10 ,

   

, . ~I .

. .'1 .'10 .

,l .1: ' . .l SI .'J I!\1 ' , :), , . Jl, D 1 , :'I:'I.iJ.' ~I .iJ, , , .l .

, ,~ ~I Ka~le: .'10 .'1.'I Jl . .'13.'1.111111 . .'l , .ID .'1 .'1 .'1 , . . ll . . lf ,l CKOTOBO:tCT:\1, I,nopbIe J. ' .'I .'10 .'10 .

.'1:.\1 .;'/l\I .l0 .

:\I .1~I, 3Iil ;'t :.\I .lJ - , , , ~.. .

lf }t , ca'l-IO" , .iJ II II .10I , Imll .1-l\\I{, .'10. , :\l ʭ .1' , 110 , , Cl BOBC~. l\lacca II .'1 . -, , "'ICCTHOIO,, .

-, .'1OI JOCTb I .1 lI .

, !ll .'lO :

',l , , II :\! Ir \I .IJ , Lfl ():i , 84. l\l.l, :: ; .\I, . . .'1 Il' .10 :\10, lIOCKo.lbKY .l l1 .'1. I .1 .iJ . .'1 .\!, .'1. :\I:

44 .

84 , .

' .'Ili , J1ɷ n ~I ~. 06 II, 1l0.1.'l .'1

- .l. , ~IJ u!3 :J , .1 n ~ XIX ~l . .1, . ~ .1 .'lO :'.I II 85. :lO ., .'l :l1 I:: . paiioHax , Jl . lI .'l. KP0:lIC , .i.fiO, :.1 ~ .'l.1 'l.'l r IOra G. l\l, fJll lJ1 ;l ll lf .r; . ~f . .'l ::.I1, J1, ll R .

:\I R.'1 I1II.llO :\-IQII C.IJOHa l.'1 ( ) & IIa:\-I , , C.10Jla , .l rpa. Jla , .10l1O , ~lIIoro ~l,

87. I::cTecTBeHHO ,1I0,l.l ' .!I~f .:, - , 1962. H~ 3, 85 C'I .

. l4~140. ()()I'm~CH ' :luif :~jJO. llr,l .l,""" (a~1 , . 138) .

85.1. . Breastcd. First preliminary rep:)rt the Egypfian d~, - TllC l rican jOllfl1al 01 Scmitic l~ugs ncl lilcralures. \'01. 111, 1916. . 38 .

87 Ha'la,10 -l H3CKaJlbIIbIx ;JI.I [r' .l

- !( l!.10 . . .1, 80- ;;\-l~l .~ jJ "}{, ;J {) (. . .l. uul\u l\U 'u-"l", - II .l0ȭ . . 11. 1887, l.I. 1-4, ., 1888, 65-81). I' .1 'I I.II,lIl l!J ~f޻, 1' lII. 193~-1939 . II llJl Ma.~O ~1. I'l 'l . 11 lle " II I1l.o!t l'IIl' ~1 III (. . \Vinkler. Rkdu-ings ! Soulhern Egypt, \'01. 1, Ld, 1938; \'01. 11, Ld, 1939) '13CTO , , iJ~I. UII, Il, II 11 BTO[JOfO . )))' JI.'lit l' . ll, .'!II, (! ,l [JII .1 J!I lII'() . , oGllapy:J !J. i.I.l'il ':J r [F. Dl.:i;0110, /n ar(heo .

logiq"e royale desert Orietllale (Kcjt-Kosseir), - ASAE, vol. LI, 1951, fa:;c. 1, 59l0j '' , .

6.'1 . I .'10 - !l-t - .

, ;

.Il ,

, JI . .10. .'10 :J 'r, - .

.'10 .l , JI (' , ~t , CJIOHa .

- , - , le , , .

, .ll .1I0 .1~1 .l ., ., II ш.'1 , . , .

.

:lf :

!'! .'1 ; . . - .'10J .

J' \"I l' , 2 TbIC. , '.lII - .'10 .'1 He:lfY 88. , .'l .'I . .'10, ~1 IIέ .l0 .'10 .'lO lI , . .1 . ., , , KOiopble !l- , .'1 .lI .'1 88 CJ~H paJJ1".,l1"1"..'JIemlfbll ~ JII!Ii :-,,l'll IV lliIll '!II'!'J1l'I' 10'1.0,}[. IV , JlO . .

? .

'OI: ! , O~'1Ha.o, el11. , II .

ot, , , ' . ' . .lJ - ''3 89. ~ . q, , ., 'l, ,, l '. ' ' .

'Prehist, 365 .

3

l'l !\ KprMHCM, ,l l JI . HepelO :1 I ll fl.l 1. , ,

- , .\1 i-! :vrv., -.'l . l\ .

, ;J: , 10 .'l JJ l\I . .l1 Ca:l1ble , - (CI'O ) , .1, . 1 JI .'1 , :\ .'I .

:: , , , .:l.-!d, , :::\to , ~ (), , , , , , , , .J., : :: [ 2. , .1 nOJJyocJ : , , .l, ', , , , f.llaBHbI:\f - .

['! Egypte, Bruxe1\cs, 1904, fl. 66-67 .

J. Capart, Le debuts de I - 'l , Wll'l lI ll [. , q 8 , ., 1958 (.1., ). . 629; J. . Harris, Lexicographical ltldies in AlJcient Egyptian minerales,DelJtsctH~ Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Ber1in Instilut rur OricntIorschung, Ber, 9 54, 1961, . 16] .

'64 ;\1 ~l 3, ,'lIJl:\{ TO.'lbKO , . , , 1 :\( ( .) :., .:I .1 l! ,.l8n .;, KaI{ .ilII .

:\ IJ..1 :\'1 n:\I 11 .'1 :\, .:J ' I, 'n.1'~ ' Cl'paH (. " 5) .

.1Jl ii .:, .'I :'lil I ;I '.l0 l 4 .

.;1 , ;l, , .'l 5. n Il.'10 , :\f :\Ibl JJ lҭ , :, n l{ .

J1 , ' !\I.1J~II .1 .'1 .'IJI 'l .'J:\l 6, :., .'I n [ 01'llO . , l\1 .'I ep~ l, .lJ.'1 ~I, .'I ۭ .'1JJ ,.l. .1J r, , , , CKa,1JC I :\f :m.ll1 . K:Ja'pK Jl, 'a.rIIO 'R l :\ ::I,i Il(J- :\~, :\" .I, , [ 7. , .1, .'I,.iJ.1J3 :\IO , ll JIJ, .'I I\ImI l' ii .1J l{II, J IIOI. .1J .'I : . .1,f I\'i' -l\ , , :\1 l1 8. Il : .

   

. . Pclric and.1. . Quibell, 'qd and Ballus, l.ondon, 1896 (.1 9 \\' .

N aq.), 11, :19, 10 \\. . [-1. Pctr'ie, r{s and 'L'eap:ms, LOI1don, 1917 ( - \\'), , 45;

\V.1\-\. Fl. Petric. Pre!tblaric En/pt, London. 1920 (,,1 - ), 11. 4]; History of tecll !lology, t'd. C11, Sing('r, Holmyard and al. \'01. 1, Oxiof(!, 195.5, . :170; . 1\1Ol1tet .

L'Egypte }his/iqu (l.'H:Jn/llle avar!t l'ecritflre), (!. . Vg ct 1., 1959, . 241 .

il . . Rci~ncr, Mycerinus, The temple !" the tllird pyrumid at Ciza, idg, J9I, . 116-118 .

:2 MPll. I1. 399-400, 141 .

13 J. 1:::, QLli'bcll l \V. F. GreeB. Hierukonpoli.~, ))1 . Ld, 19012. 0[1. :;2; R. Motld illld . l'v\yers, Cemeteries { Ar~!ant 1, LO!ldon, 1937 (3.1 - .), , 93 .

.1 , 14. JJ ,, pO.'Ib 1 'JI,'1 :I JJ n.'1 II 1;;. IIrlO, }J .'1 "IO :1.: 16 .

.1 R.'1 . .IJ1J ]{', cbeP.1a-,ry. -I10.1JI1 Bpe~leHeM, 17. 8.I .'! F:Il, I0"U.J.llu " 18. ̸.1.'1 IIӭ .1 19, lI,cbep.rJa-, II.'1ll 20, .1.'l ,; ~Il' 'lI{l'u II. I\,\ i, .1 JI ),10.l. (l{) n J{ - .1h 'lt - :, _\I.'I .

Cllep.'I8 tro!! \f JJ1I.IJ II \ .'1/)}J ~tlllIl\, 21 .

pacCMOTpClIIO ~ !.f, IO\f, 1 .10 Kpe~'He IJOII ll:l. .13- 8t'..1.1, XIX ., rteTCKIIX l{ \ICHlIbIX -11 'lII :. .1ll 22. .'! , , ! ' 1' "', I). 132. i1. .

~l'a1!('xiko!1 rJr. \'orgescllklltt':o. ~'ax F.llert .

Halil', Bd;) XIV. 19r2J4 '1009 ( [& Rca!lexikoll), s. 401 .

.':'' . Rictt[. Zrl Te("hl!/~k des "hrns im a/ten I1ltn. -.,Mitlei1L1ngcn d('s ISllts iiir Orif'nlror~cI1111lg, Hcrlill, [I \11, 11. 2. 1958. s. 176 -186 .

17 r.v.,.~I Gl,,l''IIkl 11,\1 nbli!l).1n ~lIe;'Bblt: i' .' 'lil'!li' IJ IQ,:'l~l' 1 ClBep,~,.'\.;J.I Jj[le~H"J[C~1 111 J.I1!.ll (. Firtll. Datable,"! (()/. -- t ticllJit, Marell i9;n, ;. 104- !j) .

I .'lIl, IIIJ;)-lI{bl, ,1II n n, 110 Tpy.:.tHO ~:l[, nKOIl1J3Te.'Jblfblii .U. n , '! CI!I!';J\IIa.1̸ll, 06't'I1 [l1I 11 ':l,O, '\lt'){ .,, (. J1l:0, Musiugedda alld / 1"asilln u{1u, IdI1, 1937 ( - Moslag.), 1. '" 1Il ,\,7.i,71 .

1) . S~l[;lrf, Arc.llii~l')gisclle Beitrage zur {-'rage der Entstehung der Hieroglypl1ens~'llrifi,.-- "Siltlgsi dC'r Bayeriscll('ll kdl'lIIic Ot'r \ViSSC'llsctlarten. plJilosoplJischisluriscIK A!Jle:ILlIl~./g 11912, . 3. iill (:1,a.~c(' -- Scllarlf, Arcbliologische ), s. 10 .

) . . (,(Il, Egyptian umm, 31"11 "d., (. [). sig Oxford. 1957 . :1'I'8-'j!9. {;2~ .

list, ~! !,V\. Alller ! . J\\glli, T!le excauatiatls ! of Egyptian lJlIiversity i1l the t/f'li!.'J sitl! at u (firsl pre/imillarg report), Cairo, 1932 ( - Maadi 1), 1. LXX1l2-1 .

22 J. rg. R{!("herches sur l!; origines,[ l'E'gyp/e,,01. 1, L'Age de pierre et les eillllx, Pal'is,,-I/j.~JI6, [1.51; :-Jaq., . 53-,59 .

. , .'1 , .'1.'I - ( t:.'I .'I ). II..l !J , , , :\-l , , '.'1 , ' .'l , \,lIOI /I . , II ' ' .'l .l' ', If , l :\-l , , :! I:: J\ .1 - R 1 .

1913 . .'l ll 11 , iJ 23 .

1901 1920 . .'1 .'l QIޭ .'Il ' , -,! 20- .' , , , 21. .'! :.\1l Cl1.l. Jpe:.\leBblx :.\I J', J1 III. , .1 .

.:l\I , , , (' . .'! :

~;{.l J,.:J l\I1JI ,Xl . JJ; 3 fl.f :\ KO:.\f .1έ 25. ll~I Ha:\ol :'I1aM . Jl ' .r . , ().έ :\-I, .'! Jl, ,.'! .'! ' ' I~1 , ',Cl.f.'l, ,:~I 'l:'1 . , , , JI.I IJ-.'J. CI-II ҭ .1 . :JO, :\f - . . :).'I,, ..lii , .1J . 06, . Cu.rrel\y, Stone implemenis, - CataloqlJ(~ gl dll ~''\IJset' du Caire, L(' 'Caire, 1913. ,,',I' 1!.lJ ~!1, IjJ: :!h I;'I1 l,.'i .~i,l':lD~i Ma'N!!p.lJa.IJ .'! n()ei'JlI .

. F1. Petrie, Diospolis . The ceeteries of Abadiyeh and , Ld, W .

.. 24 (.lJ Diosp,), , 23-25; , .' 22-2: .

]90! :l lI, 25 {) flOJlII ()- ;JJiI'II'III'Iro Kp~leBoTo ', Xl,lIr :ll, , , , : IlllS{" " " "f.'1 .1 l1.l ,1 I~pe(lelIb 26. 13 coneTCKIIX .'1 "1li . . . . 27. II , D\Ii 3TO"IY :IJ(l Ha!l~e 28. I: .l80 . .'1 8 1949 . 880 ' r!1i ;1:II 1: llll [lll IIll ~la.leKo II \I l{~ Hl' OPY;ll{i[ 11 ii II'JI .:JI \II\ :1 ~ 29. .'\ : I-\IO.;, l.1, .'Ja, l1, 11 ~p. ll \Ia.loM Kpe;\leBX ; !. [, \l}! ' II~I Ka:vreHJlbIX )j , .'J ).",:~ "I .

/. \II\!, !'1 , ll KpC~feBC jJ~'!.,:J.;lI' '",. .1a~T f.l :.,: H[lXO;lor 113 ll 30. (' .'1 l\IaJ "' ~!, l{ ", BblCOKOl\! :., . I/ I\:\! l! . HaH2:~be .

Kpel.iHCnbIe ;l.'!. Il .1 .'JI .' . .l .

.1IO .'J.'13l "I .1 , ll,I .'I. .'\1.'I I".'l (! l) - (J ). ~!KO .:Jii :! IIJl l\I !l. ) .. 01' 1., l\.1 \ ll'!l1\I 1I.'J. .rJ , , l, , .'1 .

Jl , l,;/ ., I l!..~t'l J: 'l'()I!t'J:JIIH'HIIO !.'!'L1 (. . "'!!. .. .

!lu u (}-(}, - Il߻, 1\-\.. - 1964, . 178-179) .

26 1:(1. \. Gescblcble des AltertUllls, Bd 1, . 11, Stuttgart ud li, 1913 s .

(!t- . Ge.:chic.lite), 64 .

27 . . . , ROCTOl.a, ., 1910, CT[J. 50-57; . . , . \-\., 1'~;),,11]). 1'fJ7, )075 .

:!8 F..,1\-\ssLIIrtl. Pre/listoii.' ! pm/()histoire d't, -' lloi\'s:~ dt' is. TraVIJ et 1lle.lllOirL's de Ill1sti!IJt d'Etl11101ugi('. i~. LI!l, 19119 (;\,,' - PrCl1ist.);.1. dil'r, lul d'arcMo!(}gie egyptiellne, \'01. 1. Pari5. 'I2 (~1t!'C - V'di. n('/) .

29 Prbl1ist., . 117-118. 140-143. 201-205, 263-265 .

30 \' lJi, 1ll/!, . 40:i, 146, 468 .

~ , fJ.1 r . !I1! :\I. . .

~III, .1II!'1 .lr .l Il (. '. 23-24). , v - .

:! .'1 J lI :\I F. .1 JJ!, n .rl :'l II t:'.'1 ' , l, IIX [".ClaBHbIe.1 l . lll :\1 :\-I.l !{޷I Kpe:vIHeBbl:\1 , 01lbJ :\-I, ,,,, I1l , ,Cl .'1 l J:\{ '\1 .1 .'1 1I:\Il\IO .

l:\1 I{, paCCA-':.'1 , :\-f.II.'I , J).I :\" .'1 :\, ;..1 .

(, II I:! /IlJI " :\" I. -:\1, , .'1.'1 .'J 32.

, r:

, f.1I .1IO !.l0 :"loI :\{ :\f I{Q . ,'10I .l ' .:\t : :\l 31 .

.'I .1 .'1 !'! li .

31 S. Clark and R. ;lh, Ancient Egyptian masonry, London, 1930, fig. 266 (I .1\I1I.); Z. Saad, Royal vti at ln, - Sulcts tl ASAF., Cal!icr 14, Le Cair~. 1951, 11, 5, pl. IV . \ .

32 (1. Brun10n and . thm!, ll Badarian civilisation and predynastic remains n, Badari, Lonodol1, 1928 (,o'l-'),, 719. pl. I.II I3 :.I\o\ostag., . 79 .

33 . . Rcisner, Tlle archaeological survey ! ""u. Arc,l,aeological repart, ', 1907-1908, "01. 1. Cairo, 1910 (.1J - ReiSlY1er, Nubia), 120: 17:56, l. 626 : G. t-!lOSI1 al1d F.. Gardner, The desert um, Londol1, 1931 (.1.: Fll), . 71, pl. LIII 5 ; . JIJIlker, Bericht , die funfte von der Akademie der Wissenschuften in Wien lI! dem Egypticka Museet in Stockholm untrnunnn Grabungen ll! der neolithischl'n Siedlung Merimde-Benisalame vom 13. u, ,~ 26. Miirz /934, - :igr dl'T kdmj dl'f \Viss"!1scltaf!c!1 irl \Vicn, plJilasopllisc!lblstorisc!lc SSt:, 7;1, Jg, 1934, WiCl1 und LcipziR', 1935, Nr , S. 129 .

.1 .1J, : .'I , fl (.l. 5, 1-2) 35. .1J Jl ~ (.l. 5, 4) 36, .'J If 37. R :\1 ~f . .1 .l, fl 9 , .l0 (.1J. 5, 3), .JlbIC (-1 .'I. 5, 5), . 38. ~ 39, , - ;,lJl\I ', ;\IJl Jl n 40 .

.1JI JIJl , lI~l[r,:!,.1J .1JlO If , , :.1 .'1 1 (. 36), ,;} 41. l .I . .il II.1Jl , - II J;:.'1 . l( .'1, II .' , U~l , . .1 l II.1 Te.c.'la fI "vIO .r. 13 ;..l , l\I .IlI .1J ,II .'l !:\ .:I: -- U.1JJl 42, ѷJl -- .

.'1 ' . TCCJla .1 (.'1. 5, 6-7). .l ,l .l , 35 FllI, . 33, pl. Il 2, 2 - : Mostag., pl. XLII16-21 . R. Ayrton and W. S. Loat, PredYl1asfic cemetery aJ I iHahasna. London, 1911 (a.~ec - C1'v\.all), 1. XX:1, XIX M ;

Reisncr, Nubla, I1:17~6 .

G , [11. L 11011-13.15; I'\aq., 1. X\:'II~-19; Mostag., 1. XLII 22 31 .IJD () il .1 [. J. Baum gartel, TI,e cultures / prellist()r{c Egypt, Ll, 1947 ( - ), . 51] ll'r, '1' I'llll,'I!IIO ;'I IIB'BeljJ1II1 .1ID l,() BHe~.c.lIO, ll' ':.1l' (.2'5) .

Ire , 1. LIlI,- 15; Rcisner, l, 118:67:63 .

&.1 Dy_'13JBa '' '.1 -.~I (EG, sign-list, . 510, ) .

40 . G. Fisc.her, fragrnellt , predYllastic Egyptiun ! { tlle Eastern Delta .

_Ariibus As{ae (Ascona), vo1. XXI, pt 1, 1958, . 87, fig. 2!i c .

41 II . . , ,l "' !! jl B'orHYTblVI.1Ƿl1 (, . ~IN, ,.:l';.'1 II'Cl,l\;JJaJII ?::, 1\'\.-.11., Ng 54, 1957, . 1'57) .

TW, 5 .

.

Ta~a 43 OJI . , , 30- ' JI . .'1, (! ;\I [ , :\'l?\1 . ,1 :\ II ;(ll :\I. 44, ' ' t! J (6.1. 5, 8). ,.'1, \1I , . .'1, , ' (5 .

. (.1. .'IO ,'1. .

5, 9) 50 Ap;\IaHTa, 46, . r ra :\f(} aJ CeBepO:\I, , 3::;'''lI \" .'1JII n 01 . .'10.1 .'1m - rJlaBHoro . .'1 , ':'!1 , ' .'1 .

. ,'1. .1 ,"l.1. .'1 , n.'1 BTOPbll\'1 47. .'] I , .'10 .'1 .'10JIO .'1n ..I\'\ lIe :'!IO::\I ,l ' :\l :\'l.'1 , ' .'! :'!1, I .l ' .'! 1! :I n, ;\fbI I .'1,Faytlm. l. \'r~I; , . 20; , 'Jip. 315--37; . Junker. Varliilliiger Bericht' die zit Grab/mg der Akademie der Wissen,~chaftel1 in Wien der uorgeschichtlicllen Sielllung Merimde-Bl'nisa/ame m 7. Februar .; 8. April 1930, - ".l\.zi!1; der kdi d,!'r WissstJft i \\Tjen. plJilo!ophisc'h!Jistorische Klasse, 67. JgWien !Ind Lcipzig, 1931, Nr. V-XIII (.1 - . , S. 63-66; . J!lnker, bericht die u Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien in Verblndung m dem Egyptiska A1u.;eet in Stackholm IIntemommenen Grabun{.!ell der ne:Jlitischen SiedlunR n Alerimde-Bcllisalame m 6. N!m 1931 bls 20. Jiinner 1932, - .l\.zi~ der Akademie 'Vissenschaften in Wein, philosophiscll-11is1orisclle l(IaS5c, '69. Jg. 19'J2 .

Wien und Leipzig, 1933, Nr. 1':""IV, S. 63 .

44 , . 27 .

45 ,lllll , , , 'l ' Jl. 1', .. :t ' JJ .

46 m., .

207, pl. lIl l ; R'iSI, Nubia, 126:218:41 .

47 . Randall-Maci\'er and . . , EI Amrall and Abydos, L:ondon, 1902 (.:tee-Amrah), . 19, l. VH .

a:l 18. , . :\-l.'I ~; ll, .'I\y , \lfi HeitOCTaTo'lllO ,, 011 HeCO\leHHO .'l .Iee i1: .

:\-I , , , ~ n _l, .% .1 . . , .10 , 49 .

OTMCllb, lll :\I .1 , .'l \Ia lIO .rI 50. J913 . I.l II,'liJl, , 1I0έ ::J \I i'! (. .l ;I) .

n &:\I:\1 .10\I 51. 11 .1, .1 "l!li1O .'lll .r :\-I, , ii , .' n , .1 (.1. 5 .

NlaxacHbI 8) 52. .l r.'! II.1 i' : Jl).-! ;l~),10 53 .

I\ :\ .1 l n l\I .l. Il.'l Boce~lb . ;l.1 , I JI IlII (6.1. 5, 16), .'l .1 , :\I {,'1..:Ia 54. .1 l\, :\-I ll l.'l, I ,l ' .1ii .1, , (lIOJ1) 55 .

Jl ka:\-Ibl l\ II , .'1 o.rl , Il~-1JIO :\I.1.1~l, , IIII, 11, :\-I .1'0, J. lltl, f,e cultures , pre!u\toric Egypi, voI. Lont1on-Ne\v Yorkt, 1960 (a.~ee - CPl: II), j.I. 35 .

Arrn., . 208 .

4'1 " Vandicr, llll, . 576; \V. HeIck td . , leines WtU/1 der Aegyptologie, Wi~d, 1956, S. 397 .

51 J\:\cycr, Geschic!,te, S. 56; , .'1. .

52 , ". 149-150; O'\all, . '3-2, pl. .

53 Scllarff, Arc/liiologische Beitriige, S. 29-30 .

54 , pl. 1.IV2 - /, . 212. ~l.1 :\l .:it. .1 .~llllil ro'ii ( 11, . 31). "'J Jlll. 0pKeJbl [1\. J. Arkcll, . II.: 1::. J. Bi1llmkl, The cultures { preJlistoric Egypt, \'01. , Londml. New York. Tonronto, /960,Hibliotheca Oricl1talis, J~ , ~1! 1/2, 196.3, . 27] .

55 J. GstI1i{, !sn and Bet-Kha1ldf, Londol1,1'902 (AaJlee - ;\\al1.), . 7, }l1. ;

.

11, 28 .

JI v ,.rI .

' JI .rI~f .1 (.'I. 6, 1-2). .'!}! .'I II. .'I :-'I .Iҭ : , .'] 56. .fl1\-! , ROTOjJbIX .fln1 \I! I! , :-'fO .' n . .'! ,f .'Jh , 'III :\I I\I. ol';PYf.:IbIe .

.I] , ~I II III. rOe :-'IIO I JIlI .'!, ~] . .l, n l-: .'! N\., .'1 .'I 57. ll .'Il , :,\1Q, . ~I , .

tl :l !3 !ll\I " :-.f, _.- :l1. .1!1O, :\.;,\ BTOP0:l1 :\-1 ll:lI .1 - (. 6, 3-4),, Il Q.IJ.'.'!

.'!IIO R 11 I ; [8. .'I !l 11 , 5\1 .

110 R.'! .'] .

I 3JJ :lf .fl .'! .

' ,1, fI : :lfII .'! .1 :lf. :I -II:. .flI::J .1 (.']. 5, 11) .'] , , 110 .1! :\I .1 .'I !'!!

~ (. 5, 12) 60. lO . 41-43 .

36 Maadi 51 ', . 73; di 1, . 41-43, pl. LVI-LXIX .

58 G. . Rcisner, Tl,e early dynasiic cenZl!teries { Ng-d-Dr, - Egyptian ll logy, \'01. 11, pt 1, Leipzig, 1908 (.lJ - Naga-dDr), . 112; , pl. LXXIX581 ;

Diosp.; . 24 .

59 Naga-ed-Der, pl. 40 &3 \.,. FI. Pet.ri,e, . . \Vaill\Vight anl , Mackay, The Labyrinth, Gerzeh and Mazgutle',. London, 1912, pl. V1I 15,16; :-Jaq., l. LXXI1164.71 .

l, .'I, . . , . :\1 .'] (. 5, 10) 61. : ~I ~I .10 I, c.JerKa 'llJlO-' (.'1. 5, 14). 13. ,. . !)f)-GO ,') ! . :\f, :\f .1 , lO,1 n , l, ; DbJ!J. ?.l.'1.;:)JI~' :\1.If ~1, II l, . KOlte ll jJ llll .111 , ii , "' ,'IO ll .::I P.YKOHTlI 62 .

J(1 1I :v II! lllI ' !'l.'1l I:\iQ .

If .'IIIII i\f 11:\!', , I1:\I.~IIf lI\IeCTO !l..'IO 63. \l K~IIfHKa (..'l. 5, 20) .'1 :\.' ͭ , . II JJlI (. 5, 21) (' SI.1 !J l:l IIliIIlDI 1{Qlii 61. :-. 1II1I.1lll iJllllO ..'IIiI{n, lIll , .:lO .::II ..,!'lf':\I I l\I (.:). 3, 22) 65, llll I , .:l"l ,1IIJ (.1. 5, 23), lll ;\! II 6. IISI ll i ,l OCIIOBIIOM ll.1H ", ,!J .l :;Ol' .'lJ1 "II lIlll!l l:1 !":1 ,l :-l I{n 67. lll I..'lI:I, III ~Il.'], .lJ II , n:\I lI..1I 61 Pr~11ist, . .

17fi, 43. 41 .

(.'l - !..\t), pl. XVII 19,,N'~ 3021. 62 Ci. llrunton, Alatmar. I.ol1don. 1948 :\lII Op"e,l.~a, l'u ~,1 lI ;1 u.'1.0 [1il'l, ?,GI. Ct!.IITaeT, 'ITO ll (),:!!'~ .l I,'r Heil ;Ji!lO j'!eYlllb, ' ,l JTOrO :l11:I. ro ' .1II . !Jj Kpe~IHeBble iiII .1.'l II (. J. Arkcll, . 1\11.: 1::. J. BaL1'11!~.IIIlcl. The cu[fur(!s ()' prelJistorie Eg!lpt, LOl1don, 195.'), - Bibl:ollll'Ca Orit'ntali$. Jg XIII,,N'g 3/4, 19.16, '~;" 125----126) .

(;:1 ':;.' t :1{J() l""I,lI.;!... l'~[( m.~,. 3.1 ,l .

')~'' r..l.ll',:L, uro K[J{"'\I!!e'Bble 'II''.l I:I!().'I '* '110 "Iܭ )')) .1;I (I::G. sig--list, T~; .. . 217-2Jr:~; 1l. pl. V,I I6, . 11) .

64 \!lj., l. LXXII 52 ; Musrtag., pl. XI. i :; N., pl. LXXIIo:,.'\J1! 414 .

65 I:: II, . 5; Mo!lag. . 90, pl. I.l ".""; CMall, . 33, pl. :II 4 ;

66 Diosp., l. "'11 u -155; Matrnar, pl. \-' 1, . 11; R. F:g\l:ll, lIaragell, London, 1923, pl. \-'11203. . Myers, prellisL()ric objects, - JF.A, XIX, 1933, pt 1, . 56 .

ܻ . .: {.:J :\l J, r I,J.\1. J :lI f )[\lO ( ). , l\'I'-I .l :\ .'l , . . , :, l\.1 !\, HapO;J.a ,- . OTcO;J.a : 1, . J\O fO {) .

.J!II:\f I-i !(.l II iIII . .J.1t1 ., . , .'l., lO :l. .1 .l.1 :\1 :11 l\ 68. :\f CTPC~IbJ .'I . . ,:,! ~ .'10JlJl .l..1 cTpe.l , ;l

1' lI. .\1 .'1 l:

(.'1. 6, 7) 69. .'I ~1 ­ :\f( Hble:\'IKOI"' , .l n !1 (.'1. 6, 5-6), CTpC.l 'lo. .1{ , J, .'IJ:\1 .'1, :.1 .1 :\f lI .

;l :! .'1 .1JO :\I ; :\l:\ , ..'1..'1.f .1 lll , :\1 .1I-! ; 71 (. 6, 8-10) .

I " .'! [[(~'I ii HeCKO.:JbKO -- 72 (6.1. , 11). aI )Ja{({ .'1 !1lI .

CTpl'.'1 .:J ,I lI FlUl, pl. XL2Z-:i~' XUI 6; , pl. ('2 l. \'II135-]I~ XXIX o 68 51167);,\\ostag., ., . 195.\'\111., . 6. l. -IV .

Q MlI11. .

pl. 111. (1. 7: c.PF. I1, pl. 18.9Fll pl. XXXVIII\-IO: m., l. LX!:IR.'9~: \ill\., l. ILXX.Ifi, . JLk,', Bcricht die Gabung de Akadcl1!ic {! tllisscnschaiten i71 Wien,u! der neoLhiscJ/en Siedlltgn VOf! Merimde-Rel/isalame (\'Ves/delfa) . bis 'JO 1929,..... At1z~ig('r rlcr kll(lmi (I~r \\'iss,sllftCI1 ill \\'kn, p!lblosophi5{:h-llistorisch~ 1lasse, 66..Jg. 1929, \Vi~n ld Lcipzig, 1930, l'\r. X\I-X'v'111 (.'l-. 1), S. 219 .

. 5[1; , l. LXXXI9~; Naq.. l. LXXIII 69: R!'isrlcr, Nllbia, 121:17:I~;

72.\0\. m and . 1\'l gllill, TI,e excavafi()ns , Egyptian Unjversity in the neolithic siLe at /vJaadi (secnl/d preliminary report). Cliro, 1936 ( -,\\aadi 1I) .

l. LV'fi .

.'J:\ot) ~l. "IO. ;tjlO . u 3 - (Jl. 6. 12) 73. . n .'JI :1; 1"JOIlII "II , !i , G:\,(.1J( ."Il1 n 71. al{Q .'I3 i'J1 ..I, I .'Jr. uu ", .: . I! :v: u l\l .l0, !" IJlO, 1 .'! έ D.I 75. Kpo~le , JlO CJlOna}(, u , ;l::1TilpUBI{e .

.l ii l1I1.\ ~1 .'! UII.lll!1~1 .:l ll:i l\l I - ~ . :Vl u l 76. , u IIIllu }l .'JI, , , , l\l,, Ii u, :\I. , }1 .'l .'l ' lIu CTpeJI :\I }! 77. U!IOD .'1 l\I , .

l :VI }!II 1:ii , . . cTpe.'J .

~, ,':\( . lI' .l. NI .'l ~l11;Il\I , II .: ', }( :\lII JI.'lѷ .1 ).l II';. lI CTpeJl, JI , J3.1-, }ll

   

LV . -113; Dit' :I!8t'lgiS('.ll'1l l)[liss dl's vorgt'scl1iclltJjClll'1I Grii BC.pl .

7:1 v Al,usir C'I-,\o\elek nacll dcr l1fz('illllg . .is I)carbci'tct von berfe1dcs . ScIJarff, Lcip7.i~, 1926 (,l - li),, Taf. 2R .

74 Scll\rff, ArcJ/(/ologische Bei/.riige, S. 36; W. . Hmery, rJle tomb of Hcmaka, Cairo, R' 46, ])1. ; si~nlist, ]). 513, I( .

1938, J::G, 5 CPF., . 39; Prc.hi:t., ]). 142, n. 53 .

76 , Sigtl-list. ]).514, 22 .

; .

77 J. Clark, The prehis(oric culture 330, 01 Africu, Cambri(lge, 1%4,,& ., . 222 .

~f' ~Ia'l~ .1 ~ 1' 19. .

~r .l. , .rr .'I 3D .

.'I1 ,.'1 .'1 !I .'IO II.1'. .l0 . , ]J~f :\1 , 3. Ma.'IO .

, .'10 ..l 81. .'I, : Jl .

n ;lll .l Jl ~101L1 , , . .\IlI : l lJIO ~la.'1o 82. !JO.'10, KPC:\'I 'l I.'I Jl , 1I.10 .

ll :\f .'1 .'1 .'It' TO.'IbKO ; Kpe~ICBe ǭ (. 5, 15) 83 .

.'1 I.'I, , Jl. ~l lI 11.'I .'1.1 (.'l. 6 .

14) 84. .'1 lJ TLJM, .'1 n .'1 .

.1. .'1- .'l .:'J.:'J F: I"~laBHblM . o-i,.'1 I:.'1 (.'I. 5, .

17-18) ;1bI , ~l.'1IO , Kpe~IHeBbIe l1.'1 85. I:I,l} .'II 86. ~ , ~, ! (' n, ;:I)1 l .:. Jl, .Ibid., . 221, pl. LXI29-135 .

. . ee~lell()B, Il , . 188 .

81 rm., pl. IXs ~, VIII48 49, X I50 155 .

82 { II:i ~, .101l0 n ɷ R!t ilIl1I . , . I\ .~R JII1.'l :lII I,10 ", '\,J :iaOCTp~.11f.\H'!.1JHble.;,'', 0 r'w ~,.1f1I . .1 OI.1llaKo, ,I. )"flI ,.1 II.()c.~e.1O()Ba:Tb I' i!'I;I .

!:: .

83 epJ::, pl. \'1; 11, 17, 41, fig 13 .

Mos:tag., pl. \.'IIIII5,12; , 1'1. LXXIX51 .

. ll, n8 8 paliOHax (' , - Archaeologia, Warszava-Wroclo\\f, , 1958, .

. 92 .

-53; .

Fayum, pl. Mer. S. 67 .

Jl , , , .'l .10 JJ ll BPe::\-l lI ii:\10. ;\f ~, JJ '.1 .'Ja , 3 6 ~fO 3 , : , 6 , _l0 3 1 XJ ~I.'I. .. , n:\{ BTOP0:\'IY , .'10 13 n. 87. _l -, ~1 n .l0 J:\I- :\~ R D.'t (Td6.1. 5, 13) 88. (! Bpe\leHliI .1 n 8:\~l ll .1,'1. .

:,II, CTO.'Jh , 8.1 l\lO.'tJii lll (.l) 50 ! 11 .'l!I, .l.1JI!1::\-1, I\I .1 .1l::' (.1. 5, 19) 89. ll 81\'I-l ~JJl pa:JMepa, :\I ili'1 90. ll .1 .1 : , . ' ::J J.'t, . :: .

.1 \I ll 1i:Iil',1 J 'l. Ap"laHTC :'tl' Ull Ko.'tII'IeCTna nTopO~1 91 .

.'1I, .1JlJ[ li III (.!l. 6. 15), .;1 .1.:\I .'I'?.! l1, JI ]{.'tJl ; 11 ;! m. I15t "JO 92. : \IO 10 ..1IJ Ha\ll::'HHbIe -,11I1U ~I1(.,{ U.:I1I1I ,!, n, :J: . \() ii.1-J! ,:] , 1{- . .

::! '.'I .1 ii IJ. lIl, ii J' .1. !1 ]{()I1.%I! TC\I, PCIIICII 'InJj;1I1l1 Jl .llIII~1 fIf 93. .rJO 7 , . 101.95-1 1G, 8 ,. pl, J!,.., 1113 (2-):,sl;., XX\'TI 1- 9: :Jtl, pl. \'1'2 .

pl, 89 . f), IIl1:!!. 3""u.1,.:1.. 19, . , .

32; 45; CMalr I\I.; Nlaa(Ii 1. pl. LXXllI bl; .

pl .

'10 , . 47; ,. pl. LXI6~ "164.169 .

"1 rn" 225 .

rl .

92 ;ii " LXXY?

l' u ~II. 'I!! 1111 IIe I " I' 111)().lf', ()~\',1i, bl ~:'l'~ '~:r(j ~t ''Jll e1JCJJHe~() l('!!'l1 (IZ"alkxiv()!l. 8d l. S. 2). 'lI, blIJ ( (),'lf'Sl ,,:lIli\ T I2 :) lo1 (EG, . 51'2; \V. \\!():i. Die BewaffnUfl!{ (les altugyptischen Heeres. J.('il11:if! 1926 .

S. 48, 55-57). f)oIH,H~ lI 'I'III!I"~1 , a.I, l'12 (. 8011l1l't, Die Wuffell der V[/l des alten Orient,~, Lei'inig, 1926, S. 114) .

, I{, l\l~I, .'l ~I .1 94. .:, n :\ .'I U. l10JJ }IO.I, .lll : .;l. .

. . .'I } 95 .

:\ ll :l .'lܭ ca,\lbli[ .lll 96, : n , 11OBCPX.J!OCTHOI\I lI l!l\l "l,.IJ .'lb ,,10II .'I ~I, I{ - l\lO Jl .'1:\'1 }έ . }, , II!i ,ll, I3)l C.'IeJ\OB ' :'I. f~I .'I :\I:'I II .1 .1II "l Uii .

l{.J CKO.1IbI . .1 Jl ' .

,,1 I1.1 vl0ii 11 .'Il{Q}1 .'10.\" Hcii .'1I1 97 .

ll, . l' .'I .;l TC~-I. i\racca } Ilǭ ..,.'J3 vl u.'I. Ca~1O , .ll' .1 .'i .l , ~IO.IJ JleHo l{"'III-.l01:1 }II .'I . .

"', r~I~i lI Jl I{a:'lH;HHx , I{!-;lll, ll :'llO .l.'I1I Il . :'l ~ ..10,:}() , l II, .'I r. ~l.JJ .:I.'1 .'ll ll:l, II 93, !\f ll, .IJ Il il6. peTYIJJcpbl, !l.JII 9f1 .

}I Il ;i'i 113 l ~lbI ;l J{ . .l". paCCJ\-IOIO :'ll ƈ' ::!JI, ro :-I Ilt:' 04 Mer. 11, S. 70 .

95 m., }. Ll - 10 202, 204, pl. H'I1H 9 1!!., LV11:,~, I.XIIl21- .

pl .

97 ., !. LXI s, L\-'II 1; Reisner, ru, 12:17:66, pl. 66 2 .

98 . L. Uriffi!11, Belli Hasan, pt , I,ondon, 1896, . 36, pl. 1 ,6,r .

.. 225 .

If.I .

. 3I . tlO :t~jl . ll.;IO .

- Ka~leHb Bpe:\-I~I :' :l 100. n :\f l1, o~ 11)1. :\ i 102. .rII .'! .'! e.l0e~1 103 .

I{Q -, ll.l~ II~I, 104. .

-J1 , .'l r . , l(aK .l0J , JIO w tJ (. 6, 13) I( .

.'lll Ll \06 .

I\, }: J1.'!, , . , :::J , : :::J. ;:::.'1 Il , .'l :1. 107 .

lil ~l . BO:'li, BTOP:::JM :::J, (.'1. 6, 18-22). I3J1.1 :'l .

.'la .1 JI!lI lll:'lf _1 .'! JI . .'!.1 n 1lO .'l , ..'l lI :'lf .l0 108. , ;l .'l .

Jl, .1I . Sl J1Il !d .'I .

   

6 . . ll 81 I , , ~ ~1 .r. , Jl JJ , -, .'I "f ll', .l0 109 .

, , , 1Jl . .

, ., .'10 . (. 6, 16).110. ca:\lblx .1 .'I . t , ' ' :, Jl , JI 111 .

D~ .IJ ' 112 .

~ .l , 'Jl ..'IOIJO . ~1 .l0 .1 . :\n '.'ID, I ' 113 .

c.-l.1 -l .1 .1 pa.'lhHbIX lI . .lJln "l.'l JI h!.'1 )', .'l . "I .'II{ : pO:'-I (.'1. 6, 23), , . JJ.: t:a~lhIc.\lJl .:I' , , .1ܭ . :1 , IIIl!\i JI .'10lIhI :.. 114. .'I :"l.'Ih II.'1. .l 110 , Of\~l.1:'-I n ~I .

lI , .'I ( .'I), .'I _l , \I .

\I , ilO .'1 , 1' :'f .'I .:I.

; .'l : :\f , ' :

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. II 11 :" .'13.:1 .'I

   

ll (. 6) .

G' kpe-:\t' :' ! ' '-1J. f l' u , s~ .\. ll, :l1 , , :\I, , ''l}'II . J1ȭ . lJI ii .. ):1, I. . ,1[, , .'1.'J Q: ' }I.'Ie,..l. }leCTO ' I .

KpO~le , ;r, , ~II. , JI, . , ~! f }l , B'!'OPO~,I - .1III J.\~-I fI :\f ;III . II :\ u. ll .\-I Ii II 80n . .'1 IO_lI!I _, J{ ll. .. :\ . , .1 Ii.7.' II Bpe:\lella, ,'1 ClII : 11 ͭ . \J, AIHlallTe JIO , u .'1 ;:'I , .

:! II l{a:'II n ll lI 13I\I, { .'I 11 11 .: .

BTOPO~! .'llI'('('[\l):\1 Il I1.l "!'f. .71IlI1 . :l u :\IJ1 j,III ' .10lI , I!~I nJIO . ~IC 1101':\-I (' l\f(' 1.1..'0 DlI'.1 ..'1 ':\1 : IllJlI ;I, . I,, ~laTerHa:1 - Ka~lelll, :: - J1U llQ, JI. ; l\JI 1\lI u. II I.'1 j\,~! :. u, '! :\lII :\l :\! ~1 :\" :\l_IO:\'( :\l.1:\I, u u :! , :\\ II ~4 :\l;1..~. ~I.1IO .'l.; .'!II C::\ICITJlblX :\l!I! , ::lj[.; , I\'! 06..1 .l:, .'10 II- lI:.'Ia :\lmil I\J(. :\1 Kpe:\leBX . f' 6* (Z~ro t: ' ' ' ~. ': lI.. .. , KOT.OPbl(i KpeMHeBO~ I - ~ oce.1JKa,

ea 1l5, ~~, ro :

.

. .

,". .,,u.. 'li ~ l'I~ ", .. . l' , i()-, . lI . , 1:u , '~ -~~(! fl;. ' , .

IJO . ls, . '!'. .,, , , ,. , .

UCHOBHblM. , '; . ~ 116 .

, η ' .'1 , .

lf - KpeMHe~ .

," F. L. Grilfith. Beni Hasan, pt , . 36, pl. IX. .

11& 118 . und . Grapow, Worterbuch. der aeg!lptisch.en Sprache. Bd , Leipzie .

., .

1955, S. 485-486 .

4

.'1 paCC~10TpeH .'l.'ltf .

8!\'1 n .'1II ll ; .'l;\1 : .'I ),I )\.::!I MeTa.rbloB. J.'I lI :. :. .1.'I ii . I, 1 , ( .l~ .I ) 1II).I, . , ilIl ;l J!\f :.1I . .'1ȭ .J..'1 I j):'lII If .'1IlIl ),-Ibl u .

),1 I. lIll ml , .:l, t I R n8.iI ;l. ȭ I1.111f ;\I u JI ii. U.'1 ;~ .1 :\I.l.'I . ~ , , n ll ;\I JI ~" .

. - ),-I .l Jl .'l , ;\l 'l.l ~I K3;\ICHHbIX 2. . , . , n . .. 1958 I ( - ). . 308-395, 688-693; R. J.- r'orbes, //{ in antiquily. - for /l/gists and technologists, Leidcn, 1950 ( - Forbes. ). . 15tebook 20, 290-373... -' V. . FI. Pe!ric, Prehistoric Egypt. London. 1920 ( PE~; .22-25.' -, , , .'I MaccY.'Iap 3. IJI3aJl ~lII1TO!l IB :'Il , .' , .1 , :'I-1 I ~,f.C:\fbC.r!c I'U .',

IIOJl,::JII . :

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.1ll , , .::J , III :I II'ƭ . , .'I .l .1)' II Jl .'1 .ll.10. .1 .'l , .III . .

~ ~ , I eii .1 .,I. ]l,.::J ;lȭ 'l :ll , ~,lO, ll\ .

   

3 .

Massoulard, Prehistoire et profohistoire d'Egypte, -- Uni\'l~rsite 1 Paris. et memoircs de l'Institut d'Ethno~ogic, Paris, LIII, \94'9 (.la:~cc - Pri:i1ist.), \ral1X . 150-1'51,211-2113,2&5--200; J. \-'dir. Manuel d'arcJ/eologie egyptienlle, \'01. 1, Paris, 1952, . 94-404, 439-4412, 446-1158, 1,00, 494 .

4 . J. Baum~artel, The cultures ' prehistoric Egypt. London. 1947 (.a~'1ee- ), . 412; The cultures of prehisforic Egypt, vol. 11, Ld-Nw rk-rt, 1960 ( n - ,. 1-23 .

5 [, . 34, 42; , . 18; W. . Fl. Pctrie, Tools and weapor.s, London .

1917 ( - TW), . 19 .

:..lJ ~I, . , .'I , . .1 !1. . ~1 " ., :\I, ~'I .1, ~I 1'II , . . 6 .

( \Icero/.! I .1 Ol:,J;;ll."j-!i: !\[~'.r)I" .iJCl , :'fc:1.Hoe I .'I ,'1 , ('~I n . , MeTa.'Ir 1111 .'1,.10 Te~'1 ~.f, [. . . .IIQ .1 , lI.'l J1 7 .

, :\I.' .1 II~lIJ , . . 'I, UIIέ , .'I ~l:l . j) ;l.If , Ilpll JIOJIHOe JII "I Il U I, !l~1 . 1,Ia rO;l.bl lIn l\IIII .'1(; :I :\leTa.l.lYP _1.'I , II.'I 1ll .

): .1, ' 1~leTa.1JIbl JI,," IIl 8, 0.::10 , , .'1 .r .'lO:\{ Ia:VICHb . .1.'I . '::.1R&.'I :\I, m. , !, . , .l ~l .1 - :JII:, . . . lIO , . . .'I, ѷ:\I .1.'1 - .

, ,

( ) ,'I..1 .l peM~H JI 6 , . 42 .

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8 W. Go\\'land. !l meta/s in antiquity, - Journa\ of Royal antllropological institutc, vo\. XLII. 1912.(;\' - Gowland, ), . 235-2187 .

, , , 9. II , lll , ll~ 10, . .

~ 11. ) I~, . cepeupo n l lO .l (). .'I, . I:JII .'III, ., ll 12 .

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